Advertisement

Oral Infections

  • Jean M. Bruch
  • Nathaniel S. Treister
Chapter

Abstract

Bacterial, fungal, and viral infections are frequently encountered in the oral cavity. There is no single feature characterizing infection in the mouth, and in many cases the clinical appearance may be similar to that of noninfectious conditions. Careful history taking and examination, identification of risk factors, and appropriate utilization and interpretation of diagnostic tests are critical for determining the correct diagnosis and initiating appropriate therapy. This chapter provides a rational approach to assessing, diagnosing, and managing patients with oral infections, with a special emphasis on those with underlying immunosuppression.

Keywords

Caries Cavities Periodontal disease Abscess Periapical abscess Periapical granuloma Periapical radiolucency Periodontal abscess Streptococcus mutans Ludwig angina Necrotizing fasciitis Mediastinitis Trismus Endodontic therapy Root canal therapy Neutropenia Calculus Tartar Plaque Furcation Pericoronitis Inflammatory gingival hyperplasia Nifedipine Phenytoin Cyclosporine Acute necrotizing stomatitis Parotitis Paramyxovirus Mumps Epstein-Barr virus Cytomegalovirus HIV Candida albicans Candidiasis Thrush Pseudomembranous candidiasis Hyperplastic candidiasis Erythematous candidiasis Angular cheilitis Aspergillosis Cryptococcosis Blastomycosis Histoplasmosis Paracoccidioidomycosis Mucormycosis Human papilloma virus Enterovirus Shingles Postherpetic neuralgia Ramsay Hunt syndrome Herpes zoster oticus Mononucleosis Oral hairy leukoplakia Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease Squamous cell carcinoma Squamous papilloma Verruca vulgaris Condyloma acuminatum Focal epithelial hyperplasia Heck disease Coxsackievirus Herpangina Hand-foot-and-mouth disease 

Sources

  1. Arduino PG, Porter SR. Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: overview on relevant clinico-pathological features. J Oral Pathol Med. 2008;37:107–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Enwonwu CO, Falkler WA, Idigbe EO. Oro-facial gangrene (noma/cancrum oris): pathogenetic mechanisms. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2000;11:159–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Gnann JW, Whitley RJ. Herpes zoster. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:340–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Horning GM. Necrotizing gingivostomatitis: NUG to noma. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 1996;17:951–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Hosseini SM, Borghei P. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis: pathways of spread. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;262:932–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Lerman M, Laudenbach J, Marty F, et al. Management of oral infections in cancer patients. Dent Clin N Am. 2008;52:129–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Nahlieli O, Bar T, Shacham R, et al. Management of chronic recurrent parotitis: current therapy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;62:1150–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Sitheeque MA, Samaranayake LP. Chronic hyperplastic candidosis/candidiasis (candidal leukoplakia). Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2003;14:253–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Sweeney CJ, Gilden DH. Ramsay Hunt syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;71:149–54.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Woo SB, Challacombe SJ. Management of recurrent oral herpes simplex infections. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;103:S12e1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean M. Bruch
    • 1
  • Nathaniel S. Treister
    • 2
  1. 1.Massachusetts Eye & Ear InfirmaryHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Brigham & Women’s Hospital Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Harvard School of Dental MedicineBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations