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Variants of Normal and Common Benign Conditions

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Fundamental to diagnosing oral pathologic conditions is the ability to recognize the spectrum of clinical findings that represents variation of normal within the population. The range of such variation is wide and findings can be very subtle or notably prominent. Some are purely developmental, while others have a clear inflammatory or traumatic etiology. This chapter describes the most commonly encountered variations of normal and benign conditions encountered in the oral cavity, with specific guidelines for diagnosis and management, when clinically indicated.


  • Melanocytes
  • Melanin
  • Physiologic pigmentation
  • Melanotic macule
  • Melanoma
  • Fordyce granule
  • Sebaceous gland
  • Gingival graft
  • Free gingival graft
  • Lingual tonsil
  • Tonsil
  • Fissured tongue
  • Geographic tongue
  • Benign migratory glossitis
  • Stomatitis erythema migrans
  • Erythema migrans
  • Median rhomboid glossitis
  • Fibroma
  • Irritation fibroma
  • Traumatic fibroma
  • Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia
  • Epulis fissuratum
  • Torus
  • Mandibular torus
  • Maxillary torus
  • Exostosis
  • Ankyloglossia
  • Frenula

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-29767-5_2
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Bruch, J.M., Treister, N.S. (2017). Variants of Normal and Common Benign Conditions. In: Clinical Oral Medicine and Pathology. Springer, Cham.

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  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-29765-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-29767-5

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