Advertisement

Facts and Projections on Climate Change

  • Theodoros ZachariadisEmail author
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science book series (BRIEFSENVIRONMENTAL)

Abstract

This chapter outlines the main facts about changes in the global climate in recent decades and established projections of climate scientists regarding the future evolution of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions, temperature, sea level and precipitation. Apart from the global level, the past and future evolution of key climate variables in Europe, the Mediterranean region and Cyprus is described. Latest available information from international and regional studies is used for this purpose.

Keywords

Climate model Concentration pathways Precipitation Radiative forcing Sea level Temperature 

References

  1. Albrecht, F., Wahl, T., Jensen, J., & Weisse, R. (2011). Detemining sea level change in the German Bight. Ocean Dynamics, 61, 2037–2050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aufhammer, M., Hsiang, S. M., Schlenker, W., & Sobel, A. (2013). Using weather data and climate model output in economic analyses of climate change. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 7, 181–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bank of Greece. (2011). Environmental, economic and social climate change impacts in Greece. Athens, Greece, ISBN 978-960-7032-49-2Google Scholar
  4. CMS (Cyprus Department of Meteorology). (2015). Graphs and statistics available at the Department’s website http://www.moa.gov.cy/ms.
  5. Dubrovský, M., Hayes, M., Duce, P., Trnka, M., Svoboda, M., & Zara, P. (2014). Multi-GCM projections of future drought and climate variability indicators for the Mediterranean region. Regional Environmental Change 14, 1907–1919.Google Scholar
  6. EEA (European Environment Agency). (2012). Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2012. EEA Report No. 12/2012, Copenhagen, Denmark. ISBN:978-92-9213-346-7, doi: 10.2800/66071
  7. Evans, J. P. (2009). 21st century climate change in the Middle East. Climatic Change, 92(3-4), 417–432.Google Scholar
  8. Giannakopoulos, C., Petrakis, M., Kopania, T., Lemesios, G., & Roukounakis, N. (2012). Projection of climate change in Cyprus with the use of selected regional climate models. Deliverable 3.2 of CYPADAPT project funded by the EU Life Programme (project no. LIFE10 ENV/CY/000723). Available at http://cypadapt.uest.gr/?page_id=105
  9. Hadjinicolaou, P., Giannakopoulos, C., Zerefos, C., Lange, M. A., Pashiardis, S., & Lelieveld, J. (2011). Mid-21st century climate and weather extremes in Cyprus as projected by six regional climate models. Regional Environmental Change, 11, 441–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Henderson, G. R., & Leathers, D. J. (2010). European snow cover extent variability and associations with atmospheric forcings. International Journal of Climatology, 30, 1440–1451.Google Scholar
  11. IEA (International Energy Agency). (2015). World energy outlook 2015. Paris, France, ISBN:978-92-64-24366-8Google Scholar
  12. IPCC. (2007a). Synthesis report. In R. K. Pachauri & A. Reisinger A. (Eds.), Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC, 104 pp.Google Scholar
  13. IPCC. (2007b). Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. In M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. Van der Linden & C. E. Hanson (Eds.), Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 315–356.Google Scholar
  14. IPCC. (2014). Climate change 2014: Synthesis report. In R. K. Pachauri & L. A. Meyer (Eds.), Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC, 151 pp., ISBN 978-92-9169-143-2Google Scholar
  15. Israel’s Ministry of Environmental Protection. (2010). Israel’s Second National Communication on Climate Change. Submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.Google Scholar
  16. Jacobeit, J., Hertig, E., Seubert, S., Lutz, K. (2014). Statistical downscaling for climate change projections in the Mediterranean region. Regional Environmental Change 14:1891–1906.Google Scholar
  17. JRC (European Commission’s Joint Research Centre). (2009). Climate change impacts in Europe—Final report of the PESETA research project. Projection of Economic Impacts of Climate Change in Sectors of Europe based on Bottom-up Analyses. Available at http://ipts.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/pub.cfm?id=2879
  18. JRC (European Commission’s Joint Research Centre). (2014). Climate impacts in Europe. The JRC PESETA II Project. JRC Scientific and Policy Reports, EUR 26586EN. Available at http://ipts.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/pub.cfm?id=7181
  19. Kjellström, E., Nikulin, G., Hansson, U., Strandberg, G., & Ullerstig, A. (2011). 21st century changes in the European climate: Uncertainties derived from an ensemble of regional climate model simulations. Tellus, 63A, 24–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lelieveld, J., Hadjinicolaou, P., Kostopoulou, E., Chenoweth, J., El Maayar, M., Giannakopoulos, C., et al. (2012). Climate change and impacts in the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East. Climatic Change, 114, 667–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lelieveld, J., Hadjinicolaou, P., Kostopoulou, E., Giannakopoulos, C., Pozzer, A., Tanarhte, M., & Tyrlis, E. (2014). Model projected heat extremes and air pollution in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East in the 21st century. Regional Environmental Change, 14, 1937–1949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lionello, P. (Ed.). (2012). The climate of the Mediterranean region—From the past to the future. Elsevier. ISBN:9780124160422Google Scholar
  23. Lionello, P., Abrantes, F., Gacic, M., Planton, S., Trigo, R., Ulbrich, U. (2014). The climate of the Mediterranean region: Research progress and climate change impacts. Regional Environmental Change 14, 1679–1684.Google Scholar
  24. Menéndez, M., & Woodworth, P. L. (2010). Changes in extreme high water levels based on a global tide-gauge data set. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 115(C10).Google Scholar
  25. Önol, B., & Semazzi, D. (2010). Regionalization of climate change simulations over the eastern Mediterranean. Journal of Climate, 22, 1944–1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development). (2015). Climate change mitigation: Policies and progress. France, Paris ISBN:978-92-64-23878-7Google Scholar
  27. Price, C., Michaelides, S., Pashiardis, S., & Alpert, P. (1999). Long term changes in diurnal temperature range in Cyprus. Atmospheric Research, 51, 85–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Samuel-Rhoads, Y., Iona, S., Zodiatis, G., Hayes, D., Gertman, I., & Georgiou, G. (2009). Sea surface temperature and salinity variability in the Levantine Basin during the last decade, 1996 to 2006. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 11. General Assembly 2009.Google Scholar
  29. Shoukri, E., & Zachariadis, T. (2012). Climate change in Cyprus: Impacts and adaptation policies. Environmental Policy Research Group Report 01‐12, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus. Available at http://works.bepress.com/theodoros_zachariadis/24
  30. UN (United Nations). (1992). United Nations framework convention on climate change. Available at http://unfccc.int
  31. Van der Linden, P., & Mitchell, J. F. B. (Eds.). (2009). ENSEMBLES: Climate change and its impacts: Summary of research and results from the ENSEMBLES project. Met Office Hadley Centre, FitzRoy Road, Exeter EX1 3 PB, UK, 160 pp.Google Scholar
  32. Vautard, R., Cattiaux, J., Yiou, P., Thepaut, J. N., & Ciais, P. (2010). Northern Hemisphere atmospheric stilling partly attributed to an increase in surface roughness. Nature Geoscience, 3, 756–761. doi: 10.1038/ngeo979
  33. Vigoa, M. I., Sanchez-Realesa, J. M., Trottini, M., & Chaoc, B. F. (2011). Mediterranean Sea level variations: Analysis of the satellite altimetric data, 1992–2008. Journal of Geodynamics, 52(2011), 271–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cyprus University of TechnologyLimassolCyprus

Personalised recommendations