Pulling Levers on Gang Violence in London and St. Paul

  • James A. Densley
  • David Squier Jones


This chapter compares and contrasts two focused deterrence pulling levers strategies in two cities, 4000 miles apart: London, England, and St. Paul, Minnesota. Based on qualitative interviews with key stakeholders in both cities and analysis of secondary data, the chapter examines program efficacy, issues of fidelity in Group Violence Intervention, innovation in transforming theory into practice, and context-specific challenges to directing gang-violence cessation. The community-police nexus in gang intervention and possible “spillover effects” of focused deterrence strategies on vicariously treated gangs are discussed. The chapter explores how and why “pulling levers” failed in London but succeeded in St. Paul, with implications for research, policy, and practice.


Focused deterrence Gangs Group violence intervention Problem-oriented policing Pulling levers 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Law Enforcement and Criminal JusticeMetropolitan State UniversitySt. PaulUSA
  2. 2.School of Criminology and Criminal JusticeNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA

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