Hybrid TOSCA Provisioning Plans: Integrating Declarative and Imperative Cloud Application Provisioning Technologies

  • Uwe BreitenbücherEmail author
  • Tobias Binz
  • Oliver Kopp
  • Kálmán Képes
  • Frank Leymann
  • Johannes Wettinger
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 581)


The efficient provisioning of complex applications is one of the most challenging issues in Cloud Computing. Therefore, various provisioning and configuration management technologies have been developed that can be categorized as follows: imperative approaches enable a precise specification of the low-level tasks to be executed whereas declarative approaches focus on describing the desired goals and constraints. Since complex applications employ a plethora of heterogeneous components that must be wired and configured, typically multiple of these technologies have to be integrated to automate the entire provisioning process. In a former work, we presented a workflow modelling concept that enables the seamless integration of imperative and declarative technologies. This paper is an extension of that work to integrate the modelling concept with the Cloud standard TOSCA. In particular, we show how Hybrid Provisioning Plans can be created that retrieve all required information about the desired provisioning directly from the corresponding TOSCA model. We validate the practical feasibility of the concept by extending the OpenTOSCA runtime environment and the workflow language BPEL.


Cloud application provisioning TOSCA Hybrid plans Automation Declarative modelling Imperative modelling Integration 



This work was partially funded by the projects SitOPT (Research Grant 610872, DFG) and NEMAR (Research Grant 03ET40188, BMWi).


  1. 1.
    Andrzejak, A., Hermann, U., Sahai, A.: Feedbackflow - an adaptive workflow generator for systems management. In: ICAC 2005, pp. 335–336, June 2005Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Binz, T., Breitenbücher, U., Kopp, O., Leymann, F.: Migration of enterprise applications to the cloud. It - Inf. Technol. Spec. Issue Architect. Web Appl. 56(3), 106–111 (2014)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Binz, T., Breitenbücher, U., Kopp, O., Leymann, F.: TOSCA: portable automated deployment and management of cloud applications. In: Bouguettaya, A., Sheng, Q.Z., Daniel, F. (eds.) Advanced Web Services, pp. 527–549. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Binz, T., Breiter, G., Leymann, F., Spatzier, T.: Portable cloud services using TOSCA. IEEE Internet Comput. 16(03), 80–85 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Binz, T., Breitenbücher, U., Haupt, F., Kopp, O., Leymann, F., Nowak, A., Wagner, S.: OpenTOSCA – a runtime for TOSCA-based cloud applications. In: Basu, S., Pautasso, C., Zhang, L., Fu, X. (eds.) ICSOC 2013. LNCS, vol. 8274, pp. 692–695. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Breitenbücher, U., Binz, T., Kopp, O., Leymann, F.: Pattern-based runtime management of composite cloud applications. In: CLOSER 2013, pp. 475–482. SciTePress, May 2013Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Breitenbücher, U., Binz, T., Kopp, O., Leymann, F.: Vinothek - a self-service portal for TOSCA. In: ZEUS 2014. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 1140, pp. 69–72., March 2014Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Breitenbücher, U., Binz, T., Kopp, O., Leymann, F., Schumm, D.: Vino4TOSCA: a visual notation for application topologies based on TOSCA. In: Meersman, R., Panetto, H., Dillon, T., Rinderle-Ma, S., Dadam, P., Zhou, X., Pearson, S., Ferscha, A., Bergamaschi, S., Cruz, I.F. (eds.) OTM 2012, Part I. LNCS, vol. 7565, pp. 416–424. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Breitenbücher, U., Binz, T., Kopp, O., Leymann, F., Wettinger, J.: Integrated cloud application provisioning: interconnecting service-centric and script-centric management technologies. In: Meersman, R., Panetto, H., Dillon, T., Eder, J., Bellahsene, Z., Ritter, N., Leenheer, P., Dou, D. (eds.) ODBASE 2013. LNCS, vol. 8185, pp. 130–148. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Breitenbücher, U., Binz, T., Kopp, O., Leymann, F., Wettinger, J.: A modelling concept to integrate declarative and imperative cloud application provisioning technologies. In: CLOSER 2015. SciTePress (2015)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Breitenbücher, U., et al.: Combining declarative and imperative cloud application provisioning based on TOSCA. In: IC2E 2014, pp. 87–96. IEEE, March 2014Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eilam, T., Elder, M., Konstantinou, A., Snible, E.: Pattern-based composite application deployment. In: IM 2011, pp. 217–224. IEEE, May 2011Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    El Maghraoui, K., Meghranjani, A., Eilam, T., Kalantar, M., Konstantinou, A.V.: Model driven provisioning: bridging the gap between declarative object models and procedural provisioning tools. In: Steen, M., Henning, M. (eds.) Middleware 2006. LNCS, vol. 4290, pp. 404–423. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Günther, S., Haupt, M., Splieth, M.: Utilizing internal domain-specific languages for deployment and maintenance of IT infrastructures. Very Large Business Applications Lab Magdeburg, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Technical report (2010)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Haupt, F., Fischer, M., Karastoyanova, D., Leymann, F., Vukojevic-Haupt, K.: Service composition for REST. In: EDOC 2014. IEEE, September 2014Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Herry, H., Anderson, P., Wickler, G.: Automated planning for configuration changes. In: LISA 2011. USENIX (2011)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hüttermann, M.: DevOps for Developers. Apress, New York (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Keller, A., Hellerstein, J.L., Wolf, J.L., Wu, K.L., Krishnan, V.: The CHAMPS system: change management with planning and scheduling. In: Network Operations and Management Symposium, pp. 395–408, April 2004Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kopp, O., Binz, T., Breitenbücher, U., Leymann, F.: BPMN4TOSCA: a domain-specific language to model management plans for composite applications. In: Mendling, J., Weidlich, M. (eds.) BPMN 2012. LNBIP, vol. 125, pp. 38–52. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kopp, O., Binz, T., Breitenbücher, U., Leymann, F.: Winery – a modeling tool for TOSCA-based cloud applications. In: Basu, S., Pautasso, C., Zhang, L., Fu, X. (eds.) ICSOC 2013. LNCS, vol. 8274, pp. 700–704. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kopp, O.: A classification of BPEL extensions. J. Syst. Integr. 2(4), 2–28 (2011)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Levanti, K., Ranganathan, A.: Planning-based configuration and management of distributed systems. In: IM 2009, pp. 65–72, June 2009Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Leymann, F.: Cloud computing: the next revolution in IT. In: Proceedings of the 52th Photogrammetric Week, pp. 3–12, September 2009Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Leymann, F., Roller, D.: Production Workflow: Concepts and Techniques. Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River (2000)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mietzner, R.: A method and implementation to define and provision variable composite applications, and its usage in cloud computing. Dissertation, University of Stuttgart, Germany, August 2010Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nelson-Smith, S.: Test-Driven Infrastructure with Chef. O’Reilly Media, Inc., Sebastopol (2013)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    OASIS: Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) Version 2.0. OASIS, April 2007Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    OASIS: Topology and Orchestration Specification for Cloud Applications Primer Version 1.0. OASIS, January 2013Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    OASIS: Topology and Orchestration Specification for Cloud Applications Version 1.0, May 2013Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    OMG: Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), Version 2.0, January 2011Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Opscode, Inc.: Chef official site (2015).
  32. 32.
    Petcu, D.: Consuming resources and services from multiple clouds. J. Grid Comput. 12(2), 321–345 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Puppet Labs, Inc.: Puppet official site (2015).
  34. 34.
    Smit, M., Shtern, M., Simmons, B., Litoiu, M.: Partitioning applications for hybrid and federated clouds. In: Proceedings of the 2012 Conference of the Center for Advanced Studies on Collaborative Research, CASCON 2012, pp. 27–41. IBM Corp. (2012)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wettinger, J., Binz, T., Breitenbücher, U., Kopp, O., Leymann, F.: Streamlining cloud management automation by unifying the invocation of scripts and services based on TOSCA. Int. J. Organ. Collective Intell. (IJOCI) 4(2), 45–63 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wettinger, J., et al.: Unified invocation of scripts and services for provisioning, deployment, and management of cloud applications based on TOSCA. In: CLOSER 2014, pp. 559–568. SciTePress, April 2014Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Uwe Breitenbücher
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tobias Binz
    • 1
  • Oliver Kopp
    • 2
  • Kálmán Képes
    • 1
  • Frank Leymann
    • 1
  • Johannes Wettinger
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Architecture of Application SystemsUniversity of StuttgartStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Parallel and Distributed SystemsUniversity of StuttgartStuttgartGermany

Personalised recommendations