Advertisement

Final Hosts of Fascioloides magna

  • Ivica Králová-HromadováEmail author
  • Ludmila Juhásová
  • Eva Bazsalovicsová
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Animal Sciences book series (BRIEFSANIMAL)

Abstract

Fascioloides magna parasitizes in a broad spectrum of final hosts, mainly free living and domestic ruminants. Final hosts of giant liver fluke are divided into three types (definitive, dead-end and aberrant) according to interrelationships between the parasite and the host, the ability of fluke to reach maturity and produce eggs, pathological changes within the host organism, and the potential to release eggs of F. magna into external environment. Definitive hosts contribute significantly to further spread of propagative stages of F. magna into the environment. Mature flukes localized in thin-walled pseudocysts or fibrous capsules in the liver parenchyma can produce eggs and release them into the host’s small intestine through the bile system. Definitive hosts tolerate fascioloidosis rather well, and infection is very often subclinical. In dead-end hosts, giant liver fluke can reach the liver but parasite matures very rarely. Only few eggs are produced and they are not released into the bile system. In aberrant hosts, giant liver fluke can not successfully complete the migration; parasite may occasionaly move up to the liver but formation of pseudocysts is not successful. Such hosts may often die due to tissue damage, which is associated with migration of immature flukes through peritoneal, thoracic or abdominal cavities.

Keywords

Giant liver fluke Final host Definitive host Dead-end host Aberrant host Host-parasite interrelationship Experimental infection Natural infection 

References

  1. Aiton JF (1938) Enlarged spleen in white-tailed deer at Glacier National Park. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 3:890–892. Cited in Pybus MJ (2001) Liver flukes. In: Samuel WM, Pybus MJ, Kocan AA (eds) Parasitic diseases of wild mammals, 2nd edn. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  2. Arundel JH, Hamir AN (1982) Fascioloides magna in cattle. Aust Vet J 58:35–36CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Balbo T, Lanfranchi P, Rossi L, Meneguz PG (1987) Health management of a red deer population infected by Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875) Ward, 1917. Ann Fac Med Vet Torino 32:1–13Google Scholar
  4. Balbo T, Rossi P, Meneguz PG (1989) Integrated control of Fascioloides magna infection in Northern Italy. Parassitologia 31:137–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bassi R (1875) Sulla cachessia ittero-verminosa, o marciaia, causta dei Cervi, causata dal Distomum magnum. Il Medico Veterinario 4:497–515. Cited in Pybus MJ (2001) Liver flukes. In: Samuel WM, Pybus MJ, Kocan AA (eds) Parasitic diseases of wild mammals, 2nd edn. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  6. Bazsalovicsová E, Králová-Hromadová I, Štefka J, Minárik G, Bokorová S, Pybus M (2015) Genetic interrelationships of North American populations of giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna. Parasit Vectors 8:1–15. doi: 10.1186/s13071-015-0895-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boomker J, Dale-Kuys JC (1977) First report of Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875) in South Africa. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 44:49–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bryan LD, Maser C (1982) Classification and distribution. In: Thomas JW, Toweill DE, Metz DP (eds) Elk of North America: ecology and management. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PennsylvaniaGoogle Scholar
  9. Butler WJ (1938) Wild animal disease investigation. Montana Livestock Sanitary Board 1:18–19. Cited in Pybus MJ (2001) Liver flukes. In: Samuel WM, Pybus MJ, Kocan AA (eds) Parasitic diseases of wild mammals, 2nd edn. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  10. Cameron AE (1923) Notes on buffalo: Anatomy, pathological conditions, and parasites. Brit Vet J 79:331–336. Cited in Pybus MJ (2001) Liver flukes. In: Samuel WM, Pybus MJ, Kocan AA (eds) Parasitic diseases of wild mammals, 2nd edn. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  11. Campbell WC, Todd AC (1954) Natural infections of Fascioloides magna in Wisconsin sheep. J Parasitol 40:100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Choquette LPE, Gibson GG, Simard B (1971) Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875) Ward, 1917 (Trematoda) in woodland caribou, Rangifer tarandus caribou (Gmelin), of northeastern Quebec, and its distribution in wild ungulates in Canada. Can J Zool 49:280–281CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chroust K, Chroustová E (2004) Motolice obrovská (Fascioloides magna) u spárkaté zvěře v jihočeských lokalitách. Veterinářství 54:296–304 (in Czech)Google Scholar
  14. Chroustová E, Hůlka J, Jaroš J (1980) Prevence a terapie fascioloidózy skotu bithionolsulfoxidem. Vet Med (Praha) 25:557–563 (in Czech)Google Scholar
  15. Conboy GA, Stromberg BE (1991) Hematology and clinical pathology of experimental Fascioloides magna infection in cattle and guinea pigs. Vet Parasitol 40:241–255CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Conboy GA, O’Brien TD, Stevens DL (1988) A natural infection of Fascioloides magna in a llama (Lama glama). J Parasitol 74:345–346CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cowan IM (1946) Parasites, diseases, injuries, and anomalies of the Columbian black-tailed deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus (Richardson), in British Columbia. Can J Res 24:71–103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cowan IM (1951) The diseases and parasites of big game mammals of western Canada. Proc Ann Game Convention 5:37–64Google Scholar
  19. Demiaszkiewicz AW, Kuligowska I, Pyziel AM, Lachowicz J, Kowalczyk R (2015) Extension of occurrence area of the American fluke Fascioloides magna in south-western Poland. Ann Parasitol 61:93–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dinaburg AG (1939) Helminth parasites collected from deer, Odocoileus virginianus in Florida. Proc Helminthol Soc Wash 6:102–104. Cited in Pybus MJ (2001) Liver flukes. In: Samuel WM, Pybus MJ, Kocan AA (eds) Parasitic diseases of wild mammals, 2nd edn. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  21. Dutson VJ, Shaw JN, Knapp SE (1967) Epizootiologic factors of Fascioloides magna (Trematoda) in Oregon and southern Washington. Am J Vet Res 28:853–860PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Erhardová-Kotrlá B (1971) The occurrence of Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875) in Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, PragueGoogle Scholar
  23. Erhardová-Kotrlá B, Blažek K (1970) Artificial infestation caused by the fluke Fascioloides magna. Acta Vet Brno 39:287–295Google Scholar
  24. Fenstermacher R (1934) Diseases affecting moose. Alumni Q 22:81–94. Cited in Pybus MJ (2001) Liver flukes. In: Samuel WM, Pybus MJ, Kocan AA (eds) Parasitic diseases of wild mammals, 2nd edn. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  25. Fenstermacher R, Olsen WO, Pomeroy BS (1943) Some diseases of white-tailed deer in Minnesota. Cornell Vet 33:323–332Google Scholar
  26. Flook DR, Stenton JE (1969) Incidence and abundance of certain parasites in wapiti in the national parks of the Canadian Rockies. Can J Zool 47:795–803. doi: 10.1139/z69-138 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Florijančić T, Ozimec S, Opačak A, Bošković I, Jelkić D, Marinculić A, Janicki Z (2010) Importance of the Danube River in spreading the infection of red deer with Fascioloides magna in eastern Croatia. Paper presented at 38th IAD Conference, Dresden, Germany, 22–25 June 2010Google Scholar
  28. Flowers J (1996) Notes on the life history of Fascioloides magna (Trematoda) in North Carolina. J Elisha Mitch Sci S 112:115–118Google Scholar
  29. Foreyt WJ (1992) Experimental Fascioloides magna infections of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus). J Wildl Dis 28:183–187. doi: 10.7589/0090-3558-28.2.183 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Foreyt WJ (1996a) Susceptibility of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to experimentally-induced Fascioloides magna infections. J Wildlife Dis 32:556–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Foreyt WJ (1996b) Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and elk (Cervus elaphus) as experimental definitive hosts for Fascioloides magna. J Wildlife Dis 32:603–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Foreyt WJ, Todd AC (1972) The occurrence of Fascioloides magna and Fasciola hepatica together in the livers of naturally infected cattle in South Texas, and the incidence of the flukes in cattle, white-tailed deer, and feral hogs. J Parasitol 58:1010–1011CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Foreyt WJ, Todd AC (1976) Liver flukes in cattle: prevalence, distribution and experimental treatment. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 71:816–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Foreyt WJ, Todd AC (1979) Selected clinicopathologic changes associated with experimentally induced Fascioloides magna infection in white-tailed deer. J Wildl Dis 15:83–89CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Foreyt WJ, Hunter RL (1980) Clinical Fascioloides magna infection in sheep in Oregon on pasture shared by Columbian white-tailed deer. Am J Vet Res 41:1531–1532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Foreyt WJ, Parish S (1990) Experimental infection of liver flukes (Fascioloides magna) in a llama (Lama glama). J Zoo Wildl Med 21:468–470Google Scholar
  37. Foreyt WJ, Drew ML (2010) Experimental infection of liver flukes, Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna, in bison (Bison bison). J Wildlife Dis 46:283–286. doi: 10.7589/0090-3558-46.1.283 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Foreyt WJ, Todd AC, Foreyt K (1975) Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875) in feral swine from southern Texas. J Wildlife Dis 11:554–559. doi: 10.7589/0090-3558-11.4.554 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Foreyt WJ, Samuel WM, Todd AC (1977) Fascioloides magna in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): observation of the pairing tendency. J Parasitol 63:1050–1052. doi: 10.2307/3279843 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Francis M (1891) Liver flukes. Tex AES Bull 18:123–136. Cited in Pybus MJ (2001) Liver flukes. In: Samuel WM, Pybus MJ, Kocan AA (eds) Parasitic diseases of wild mammals, 2nd edn. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  41. Giczi E (2008) Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875) infection of Hungarian red deer and roe deer stock and the possibility of protection. Dissertation, University of West HungaryGoogle Scholar
  42. Groves C (2006) The genus Cervus in eastern Eurasia. Eur J Wildl Res 52:14–22. doi: 10.1007/s10344-005-0011-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hadwen S (1916) A new host for Fasciola magna, Bassi, together with observation on the distribution of Fasciola hepatica, L. in Canada. J Am Vet Med Assoc 49:511–515. Cited in Pybus MJ (2001) Liver flukes. In: Samuel WM, Pybus MJ, Kocan AA (eds) Parasitic diseases of wild mammals, 2nd edn. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  44. Hall MC (1914) Society proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington. J Parasitol 1:106. Cited in Pybus MJ (2001) Liver flukes. In: Samuel WM, Pybus MJ, Kocan AA (eds) Parasitic diseases of wild mammals, 2nd edn. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  45. Hilton G (1930) Report of the Veterinary Director General, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Canada. Cited in Pybus MJ (2001) Liver flukes. In: Samuel WM, Pybus MJ, Kocan AA (eds) Parasitic diseases of wild mammals, 2nd edn. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  46. Hood BR, Rognlie MC, Knapp SE (1997) Fascioloidiasis in game-ranched elk from Montana. J Wildl Dis 33:882–885. doi: 10.7589/0090-3558-33.4.882 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Janicki Z, Konjević D, Severin K (2005) Monitoring and treatment of Fascioloides magna in semi-farm red deer husbandry in Croatia. Vet Res Commun 29:83–88. doi: 10.1007/s11259-005-0027-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Karamon J, Larska M, Jasik A, Sell B (2015) First report of the giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna) infection in farmed fallow deer (Dama dama) in Poland—pathomorphological changes and molecular identification. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 59:339–344. doi: 10.1515/bvip-2015-0050 Google Scholar
  49. Kennedy MJ, Acorn RC, Moraiko DT (1999) Survey of Fascioloides magna in farmed wapiti in Alberta. Can Vet J 40:252–254PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kingscote AA (1950) Liver rot (Fascioloidiasis) in ruminants. Can J Comp Med Vet Sci 14:203–208PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kingscote BF, Yates WDG, Tiffin GB (1987) Diseases of wapiti utilizing cattle range in southwestern Alberta. J Wildl Dis 23:86–91CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Knapp SE, Dunkel AM, Han K, Zimmerman LA (1992) Epizootiology of fascioliasis in Montana. Vet Parasitol 42:241–246CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kolář Z (1978) Příspěvek k léčbě fascioloidózy u jelení zvěře. Veterinářství 28:276–277 (in Czech)Google Scholar
  54. Králová-Hromadová I, Bazsalovicsová E, Štefka J, Špakulová M, Vávrová S, Szemes T, Tkach V, Trudgett A, Pybus M (2011) Multiple origins of European populations of the giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae), a liver parasite of ruminants. Int J Parasitol 41:373–383. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2010.10.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Králová-Hromadová I, Bazsalovicsová E, Demiaszkiewicz A (2015) Molecular characterization of Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fascioloidae) from south-western Poland based on mitochondrial markers. Acta Parasitol 60:544–547. doi: 10.1515/ap-2015-0077 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Lanfranchi P, Tolari F, Forletta R, Meneguz PG, Rossi L (1984/85) The red deer as reservoir of parasitic and infectious pathogens for cattle. Ann Fac Med Vet Torino 30:1–17Google Scholar
  57. Lankester MW (1974) Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (Nematoda) and Fascioloides magna (Trematoda) in moose of southeastern Manitoba. Can J Zool 52:235–239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lankester MW, Luttich S (1988) Fascioloides magna (Trematoda) in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) of the George River herd, Labrador. Can J Zool 66:475–479. doi: 10.1139/z88-067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lankester MW, Foreyt WJ (2011) Moose experimentally infected with giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna). Alces 47:9–15Google Scholar
  60. Leontovyč R, Košťáková M, Siegelová V, Melounová K, Pankrác J, Vrbová K, Horák P, Kašný M (2014) Highland cattle and Radix labiata, the hosts of Fascioloides magna. BMC Vet Res 10:1–7. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-10-41 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lorenzo M, Ramirez P, Mendez M, Alonso M, Ramos R (1989) Reporte de Fascioloides magna, Bassi, 1875, parasitando un wápiti (Cervus canadensis) en Cuba. Revista Cubana de Ciencias Veterinarias 20:263–266Google Scholar
  62. Lydeard C, Mulvey M, Aho JM, Kennedy PK (1989) Genetic variability among natural populations of the liver fluke Fascioloides magna in white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus. Can J Zool 67:2021–2025. doi: 10.1139/z89-287 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Majoros G, Sztojkov V (1994) Appearance of the large American liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875) (Trematoda: Fasciolata) in Hungary. Parasit Hung 27:27–38Google Scholar
  64. Marinculić A, Džakula N, Janicki Z, Hardy Z, Lučinger S, Živičnjak T (2002) Appearance of American liver fluke (Fascioloides magna, Bassi, 1875) in Croatia—a case report. Vet Arhiv 72:319–325Google Scholar
  65. Marinković D, Kukolj V, Aleksić-Kovačević S, Jovanović M, Knežević M (2013) The role of hepatic myofibroblasts in liver cirrhosis in fallow deer (Dama dama) naturally infected with giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna). BMC Vet Res 9:45. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-9-45 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Maskey JJ (2011) Giant liver fluke in North Dakota moose. Alces 47:1–7Google Scholar
  67. McClanahan SL, Stromberg BE, Hayden DW, Averbeck GA, Wilson JH (2005) Natural infection of a horse with Fascioloides magna. J Vet Diagn Invest 17:382–385. doi: 10.1177/104063870501700415 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Mulvey M, Aho JM (1993) Parasitism and mate competition: liver flukes in white-tailed deer. Oikos 66:187–192. doi: 10.2307/3544804 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Murray DL, Cox EW, Ballard WB, Whitlaw HA, Lenarz MS, Custer TW, Barnett T, Fuller TK (2006) Pathogens, nutritional deficiency, and climate influences on a declining moose population. Wildlife Monogr 166:1–30. doi: 10.2193/0084-0173(2006)166
  70. Novobilský A, Horáčková E, Hirtová L, Modrý D, Koudela B (2007) The giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Bassi 1875) in cervids in the Czech Republic and potential of its spreading to Germany. Parasitol Res 100:549–553. doi: 10.1007/s00436-006-0299-4
  71. Olsen OW (1949) White-tailed deer as a reservoir of the large American liver fluke. Vet Med 44:26–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Peterson WJ, Lankester MW, Kie JG, Bowyer RT (2013) Geospatial analysis of giant liver flukes among moose: effects of white-tailed deer. Acta Theriol 58:359–365. doi: 10.1007/s13364-013-0130-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pfeiffer H (1983) Fascioloides magna: Erster Fund in Österreich. Wien Tierarztl Monat 70:168–170 (in German)Google Scholar
  74. Plötz C, Rehbein S, Bamler H, Reindl H, Pfister K, Scheuerle MC (2015) Fascioloides magna—epizootiology in a deer farm in Germany. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 128:177–182. doi: 10.2376/0005-9366-128-177 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Pollock B, Penashue B, McBurney S, Vanleeuwen J, Daoust PY, Burgess NM, Tasker AR (2009) Liver parasites and body condition in relation to environmental contaminants in caribou (Rangifer tarandus) from Labrador, Canada. Arctic 62:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Presidente PJA, McCraw BM, Lumsden JH (1980) Pathogenicity of immature Fascioloides magna in white-tailed deer. Can J Comparat Med 44:423–432Google Scholar
  77. Price EW (1953) The fluke situation in American ruminants. J Parasitol 39:119–134CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Pursglove SR, Prestwood AK, Ridgeway TR, Hayes FA (1977) Fascioloides magna infection in white-tailed deer of southeastern United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 171:936–938PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Pybus MJ (1990) Survey of hepatic and pulmonary helminths of wild cervids in Alberta, Canada. J Wildl Dis 26:453–459. doi: 10.7589/0090-3558-26.4.453 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Pybus MJ (2001) Liver flukes. In: Samuel WM, Pybus MJ, Kocan AA (eds) Parasitic diseases of wild mammals, 2nd edn. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  81. Pybus MJ, Onderka DK, Cool N (1991) Efficacy of triclabendazole against natural infections of Fascioloides magna in wapiti. J Wildlife Dis 27:599–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pybus MJ, Butterworth EW, Woods JG (2015) An expanding population of the giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna) in elk (Cervus canadensis) and other ungulates in Canada. J Wildl Dis 51:431–445. doi: 10.7589/2014-09-235 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Pyziel AM, Demiaszkiewicz AW, Kuligowska I (2014) Molecular identification of Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875) from red deer from south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Wilderness) on the basis of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2). Pol J Vet Sci 17:523–525. doi: 10.2478/pjvs-2014-0077 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rajković-Janje R, Bosnić S, Rimac D, Gojmerac T (2008) The prevalence of American liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Bassi 1875) in red deer from Croatian hunting grounds. Eur J Wildl Res 54:525–528. doi: 10.1007/s10344-007-0163-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rajský D, Patus A, Bielik J (1995) Záchyt cicavice obrovskej (Fascioloides magna Bassi, 1875) v rámci monitoringu bioty v oblasti Vodného diela Gabčíkovo. In: Kontrišová O, Kočík K, Bublinec E (eds) Zborník referátov, Monitorovanie a hodnotenie stavu životného prostredia. Technická univerzita, Zvolen (in Slovak)Google Scholar
  86. Rajský D, Patus A, Špakulová M (1996) Rozšírenie cicavice obrovskej (Fascioloides magna Bassi, 1875) v jelenej chovateľskej oblasti J–I Podunajská. In: Zborník referátov a príspevkov medzinárodnej konferencie 1996. Výskumný ústav živočíšnej výroby, Nitra (in Slovak)Google Scholar
  87. Rajský D, Čorba J, Várady M, Špakulová M, Cabadaj R (2002) Control of fascioloidosis (Fascioloides magna Bassi, 1875) in red deer and roe deer. Helminthologia 39:67–70Google Scholar
  88. Rajský D, Dubinský P, Krupicer I, Sabo R, Sokol J (2006) Výskyt propagačných štádií Fascioloides magna a iných helmintov vo fekáliách jelenej zveri z okresov hraničiacich s riekami Dunaj a Morava. Slov Vet Čas 31:177–180 (in Slovak)Google Scholar
  89. Rehbein S, Hamel D, Reindl H, Visser M, Pfister K (2012) Fascioloides magna and Ashworthius sidemi—two new parasites in wild ungulates in Germany. In: Program and abstracts of the XI European multicolloquium of parasitology (EMOP XI), Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 25–29 July 2012Google Scholar
  90. Salomon S (1932) Fascioloides magna bei deutschem Rotwild. Berl Tierärztl Wochenschr 48:627–628 (in German)Google Scholar
  91. Samuel WM, Low WA (1970) Parasites of the collared peccary from Texas. J Wildl Dis 6:16–23CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Schillhorn van Veen TW (1987) Prevalence of Fascioloides magna in cattle and deer in Michigan. J Am Vet Med Assoc 191:547–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Schwartz JE, Mitchell GE (1945) The Roosevelt Elk on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. J Wildlife Manage 9:295–319. doi: 10.2307/3796372 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Schwartz WL, Lawhorn DB, Montgomery E (1993) Fascioloides magna in a feral pig. Swine Health Prod 1:27Google Scholar
  95. Senger CM (1963) Some parasites of Montana deer. Montana Wildl Autumn:5–13Google Scholar
  96. Severin K, Mašek T, Janicki Z, Konjević D, Slavica A, Marinculić A, Martinković F, Vengušt G, Džaja P (2012) Liver enzymes and blood metabolites in a population of free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) naturally infected with Fascioloides magna. J Helminthol 86:190–196. doi: 10.1017/S0022149X1100023X CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Slavica A, Florijančić T, Janicki Z, Konjević D, Severin K, Marinculić A, Pintur K (2006) Treatment of fascioloidosis (Fascioloides magna, Bassi 1875) in free ranging and captive red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) at eastern Croatia. Vet Arhiv 76:9–18Google Scholar
  98. Ślusarski W (1955) Studia nad europejskimi przedstawicielami przywry Fasciola magna (Bassi, 1875) Stiles, 1894. Acta Parasitol Pol 3:1–59 (in Polish)Google Scholar
  99. Špakulová M, Čorba J, Varády M, Rajský D (1997) Bionomy, distribution and importance of giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna), an important parasite of free-living ruminants. Vet Med 42:139–148Google Scholar
  100. Steele E (2008) Prevalence of the large liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, in the white-tailed deer in South Carolina. In: Paper presented at the 4th annual USC upstate research symposium, University of South Carolina, Spartanburg, 11 April 2008Google Scholar
  101. Stiles CW, Hassall A (1894) The anatomy of the large American fluke (Fasciola magna), and a comparison with other species of the genus Fasciola. J Comp Med Vet Arch 15:161–178, 225–243, 299–313, 407–417, 457–462. Cited in Pybus MJ (2001) Liver flukes. In: Samuel WM, Pybus MJ, Kocan AA (eds) Parasitic diseases of wild mammals, 2nd edn. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  102. Swales WE (1935) The life cycle of Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875), the large liver fluke of ruminants, in Canada. Can J Res 12:177–215. doi: 10.1139/cjr35-015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ullrich K (1930) Über das Vorkommen von seltenen oder wenig bekannten Parasiten der Säugetiere und Vögel in Böhmen und Mähren. Prag Arch Tiermed 10:19–43 (in German)Google Scholar
  104. Ursprung J, Prosl H (2011) Vorkommen und Bekämpfung des Amerikanischen Riesenleberegels (Fascioloides magna) in den österreichischen Donauauen östlich von Wien 2000–2010. Wien Tierarztl Monat 98:275–284 (in German)Google Scholar
  105. Ursprung J, Joachim A, Prosl H (2006) Epidemiology and control of the giant liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, in a population of wild ungulates in the Danubian wetlands east of Vienna. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 119:316–323 (in German)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Whiting TL, Tessaro SV (1994) An abattoir study of tuberculosis in a herd of farmed elk. Can Vet J 35:497–501PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Winkelmayer R, Prosl H (2001) Riesenleberegel – jetzt auch bei uns? Österreichisches Weidwerk 3:42–44 (in German)Google Scholar
  108. Wobeser BK, Schumann F (2014) Fascioloides magna infection causing fatal pulmonary hemorrhage in a steer. Can Vet J 55:1093–1095PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Wobeser G, Gajadhar AA, Hunt HM (1985) Fascioloides magna: Occurrence in Saskatchewan and distribution in Canada. Can Vet J 26:241–244PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Záhoř Z (1965) Výskyt velké motolice (Fascioloides magna Bassi, 1875) u srnčí zvěře. Veterinářství 15:329–324 (in Czech)Google Scholar
  111. Záhoř Z, Prokeš C, Vítovec L (1966) Nález vajíček motolice Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875) a fascioloidózních změn v játrech skotu. Vet Med (Praha) 39:397–404 (in Czech)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivica Králová-Hromadová
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ludmila Juhásová
    • 1
  • Eva Bazsalovicsová
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of ParasitologySlovak Academy of SciencesKošiceSlovakia

Personalised recommendations