Skip to main content

Photoprotection and Skin of Color

  • 1378 Accesses

Abstract

Skin of color (SOC) consists of a wide spectrum of skin tones and racial/ethnic backgrounds. A number of skin color classification systems exist, but objective measures of constitutive skin pigmentation could serve as concrete, consistent, and biophysiologically relevant criteria for defining skin color. UVR causes both photocarcinogenesis and photoaging, though to a lesser degree in darker skin types. Sun protection has an established role in treatment and prevention of pigmentary disorders, but is often underutilized in people of color. Personalized photoprotection based on skin cancer risks, desired treatment outcomes, health needs, and aesthetic concerns may be the key to balancing the benefits and risks of ultraviolet radiation.

Keywords

  • Dark Skin
  • Skin Tone
  • Light Skin
  • Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer
  • Skin Cancer Risk

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-29382-0_7
  • Chapter length: 20 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   169.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-29382-0
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   209.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 7.1
Fig. 7.2

References

  1. Agbai ON, Buster K, Sanchez M, Hernandez C, Kundu RV, Chiu M, Roberts WE, Draelos ZD, Bhushan R, Taylor SC, Lim HW (2014) Skin cancer and photoprotection in people of color: a review and recommendations for physicians and the public. J Am Acad Dermatol 70(4):748–762. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2013.11.038

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  2. Ahmed AM, Lopez I, Perese F, Vasquez R, Hynan LS, Chong B, Pandya AG (2013) A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of oral Polypodium leucotomos extract as an adjunct to sunscreen in the treatment of melasma. JAMA Dermatol 149(8):981–983. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2013.4294

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  3. Alaluf S, Atkins D, Barrett K, Blount M, Carter N, Heath A (2002) Ethnic variation in melanin content and composition in photoexposed and photoprotected human skin. Pigment Cell Res (Sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society) 15(2):112–118

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  4. Alaluf S, Atkins D, Barrett K, Blount M, Carter N, Heath A (2002) The impact of epidermal melanin on objective measurements of human skin colour. Pigment Cell Res (Sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society) 15(2):119–126

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  5. Alexis AF, Sergay AB, Taylor SC (2007) Common dermatologic disorders in skin of color: a comparative practice survey. Cutis 80(5):387–394

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Association AM (2007) AMA manual of style: a guide for authors and editors, 10th edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York

    Google Scholar 

  7. Autier P, Gandini S (2007) Vitamin D supplementation and total mortality: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 167(16):1730–1737. doi:10.1001/archinte.167.16.1730

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  8. Balkrishnan R, McMichael AJ, Camacho FT, Saltzberg F, Housman TS, Grummer S, Feldman SR, Chren MM (2003) Development and validation of a health-related quality of life instrument for women with melasma. Br J Dermatol 149(3):572–577

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  9. Battie C, Jitsukawa S, Bernerd F, Del Bino S, Marionnet C, Verschoore M (2014) New insights in photoaging. UVA induced damage and skin types. Exp Dermatol 23(Suppl 1): 7–12. doi:10.1111/exd.12388

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  10. Baumann L (2005) How to prevent photoaging? J Investig Dermatol 125(4):xii–xiii. doi:10.1111/j.0022-202X.2005.23810.x

    Google Scholar 

  11. Bernerd F, Asselineau D (1998) UVA exposure of human skin reconstructed in vitro induces apoptosis of dermal fibroblasts: subsequent connective tissue repair and implications in photoaging. Cell Death Differ 5(9):792–802. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4400413

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  12. Bigby M (2009) Epidemiology of cutaneous disease. In: Alexis AF, Taylor S (eds) Dermatology for skin of color, 1st edn. McGraw Hill Medical, New York

    Google Scholar 

  13. Binkley N, Novotny R, Krueger D, Kawahara T, Daida YG, Lensmeyer G, Hollis BW, Drezner MK (2007) Low vitamin D status despite abundant sun exposure. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 92(6):2130–2135. doi:10.1210/jc.2006-2250

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  14. Briley JJ Jr, Lynfield YL, Chavda K (2007) Sunscreen use and usefulness in African-Americans. J Drugs Dermatol JDD 6(1):19–22

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. British Association of Dermatologists (2010) Vitamin D and the sun: consensus statement. http://www.bad.org.uk/for-the-public/skin-cancer/vitamin-d. Jan 2015

  16. British Association of Dermatologists (2011) World UV App. v1.3.2 edn. 22 Design

    Google Scholar 

  17. Bureau USC (2012) U.S. Census Bureau Projections Show a Slower Growing, Older, More Diverse Nation a Half Century from Now. https://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/population/cb12-243.html. Accessed 10 Jan 2015

  18. Buster KJ, Stevens EI, Elmets CA (2012a) Dermatologic health disparities. Dermatol Clin 30(1):53–59, viii. doi:10.1016/j.det.2011.08.002

    Google Scholar 

  19. Buster KJ, You Z, Fouad M, Elmets C (2012) Skin cancer risk perceptions: a comparison across ethnicity, age, education, gender, and income. J Am Acad Dermatol 66(5):771–779. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2011.05.021

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007) Sunburn prevalence among adults--United States, 1999, 2003, and 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 56(21):524–528

    Google Scholar 

  21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) Sunburn and sun protective behaviors among adults aged 18–29 years--United States, 2000–2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 61(18):317–322

    Google Scholar 

  22. Chan JL, Ehrlich A, Lawrence RC, Moshell AN, Turner ML, Kimball AB (2005) Assessing the role of race in quantitative measures of skin pigmentation and clinical assessments of photosensitivity. J Am Acad Dermatol 52(4):609–615. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2004.03.051

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  23. Chardon A, Cretois I, Hourseau C (1991) Skin colour typology and suntanning pathways. Int J Cosmet Sci 13(4):191–208. doi:10.1111/j.1467-2494.1991.tb00561.x

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  24. Choudhry SZ, Bhatia N, Ceilley R, Hougeir F, Lieberman R, Hamzavi I, Lim HW (2014) Role of oral polypodium leucotomos extract in dermatologic diseases: a review of the literature. J Drugs Dermatol 13(2):148–153

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Chuang TY, Reizner GT, Elpern DJ, Stone JL, Farmer ER (1995) Nonmelanoma skin cancer in Japanese ethnic Hawaiians in Kauai, Hawaii: an incidence report. J Am Acad Dermatol 33(3):422–426

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  26. Chung JH, Lee SH, Youn CS, Park BJ, Kim KH, Park KC, Cho KH, Eun HC (2001) Cutaneous photodamage in Koreans: influence of sex, sun exposure, smoking, and skin color. Arch Dermatol 137(8):1043–1051

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Daniel LC, Heckman CJ, Kloss JD, Manne SL (2009) Comparing alternative methods of measuring skin color and damage. Cancer Causes Control CCC 20(3):313–321. doi:10.1007/s10552-008-9245-3

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  28. Darlington S, Williams G, Neale R, Frost C, Green A (2003) A randomized controlled trial to assess sunscreen application and beta carotene supplementation in the prevention of solar keratoses. Arch Dermatol 139(4):451–455. doi:10.1001/archderm.139.4.451

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  29. Davis EC, Callender VD (2010) Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: a review of the epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment options in skin of color. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 3(7):20–31

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  30. de Rigal J, Abella ML, Giron F, Caisey L, Lefebvre MA (2007) Development and validation of a new Skin Color Chart. Skin Res Technol Off J Int Soc Bioeng Skin 13(1):101–109. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0846.2007.00223.x

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  31. Del Bino S, Bernerd F (2013) Variations in skin colour and the biological consequences of ultraviolet radiation exposure. Br J Dermatol 169(Suppl 3):33–40. doi:10.1111/bjd.12529

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Del Bino S, Sok J, Bernerd F (2013) Assessment of ultraviolet-radiation-induced DNA damage within melanocytes in skin of different constitutive pigmentation. Br J Dermatol 168(5):1120–1123. doi:10.1111/bjd.12201

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Del Bino S, Sok J, Bessac E, Bernerd F (2006) Relationship between skin response to ultraviolet exposure and skin color type. Pigment Cell Res (Sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society) 19(6):606–614. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0749.2006.00338.x

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Eide MJ, Weinstock MA (2005) Association of UV index, latitude, and melanoma incidence in nonwhite populations–US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, 1992 to 2001. Arch Dermatol 141(4):477–481. doi:10.1001/archderm.141.4.477

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  35. Fleming ID, Barnawell JR, Burlison PE, Rankin JS (1975) Skin cancer in black patients. Cancer 35(3):600–605

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  36. Galindo GR, Mayer JA, Slymen D, Almaguer DD, Clapp E, Pichon LC, Hoerster K, Elder JP (2007) Sun sensitivity in 5 US ethnoracial groups. Cutis 80(1):25–30

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Gloster HM Jr, Neal K (2006) Skin cancer in skin of color. J Am Acad Dermatol 55(5):741–760, quiz 761–744. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2005.08.063

    Google Scholar 

  38. Goh SH (1990) The treatment of visible signs of senescence: the Asian experience. Br J Dermatol 122(Suppl 35):105–109

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  39. Grant WB (2002) An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation. Cancer 94(6):1867–1875

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  40. Grant WB, Garland CF (2006) The association of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) with reducing risk of cancer: multifactorial ecologic analysis of geographic variation in age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. Anticancer Res 26(4A):2687–2699

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Gray J, Hawk JLM (eds) (1998) The benefit of lifetime photoprotection. International Congress & Symposium Royal Society of Medicine Press, London

    Google Scholar 

  42. Green A, Williams G, Neale R, Hart V, Leslie D, Parsons P, Marks GC, Gaffney P, Battistutta D, Frost C, Lang C, Russell A (1999) Daily sunscreen application and beta carotene supplementation in prevention of basal-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas of the skin: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 354(9180):723–729. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)12168-2

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  43. Green AC, Williams GM, Logan V, Strutton GM (2011) Reduced melanoma after regular sunscreen use: randomized trial follow-up. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol 29(3):257–263. doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.28.7078

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  44. Grimes P, Edison BL, Green BA, Wildnauer RH (2004) Evaluation of inherent differences between African American and white skin surface properties using subjective and objective measures. Cutis 73(6):392–396

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Grimes PE (1995) Melasma. Etiologic and therapeutic considerations. Arch Dermatol 131(12):1453–1457

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  46. Grimes PE (2009) Management of hyperpigmentation in darker racial ethnic groups. Semin Cutan Med Surg 28(2):77–85. doi:10.1016/j.sder.2009.04.001

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  47. Grimes PE, Yamada N, Bhawan J (2005) Light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural alterations in patients with melasma. Am J Dermatopathol 27(2):96–101

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  48. Halder RM, Bang KM (1988) Skin cancer in blacks in the United States. Dermatol Clin 6(3):397–405

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Halder RM, Bridgeman-Shah S (1995) Skin cancer in African Americans. Cancer 75(2 Suppl):667–673

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  50. Halder RM, Nootheti PK (2003) Ethnic skin disorders overview. J Am Acad Dermatol 48(6 Suppl):S143–S148. doi:10.1067/mjd.2003.274

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  51. Hernandez-Perez E, Ibiett EV (2002) Gross and microscopic findings in patients submitted to nonablative full-face resurfacing using intense pulsed light: a preliminary study. Dermatol Surg Off Publ Am Soc Dermatol Surg [et al] 28(8):651–655

    Google Scholar 

  52. Hu S, Ma F, Collado-Mesa F, Kirsner RS (2004) UV radiation, latitude, and melanoma in US Hispanics and blacks. Arch Dermatol 140(7):819–824. doi:10.1001/archderm.140.7.819

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  53. Jablonski NG (2014) Is there a golden mean for sun exposure? J Intern Med 276(1):71–73. doi:10.1111/joim.12248

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  54. Kaidbey KH, Agin PP, Sayre RM, Kligman AM (1979) Photoprotection by melanin--a comparison of black and Caucasian skin. J Am Acad Dermatol 1(3):249–260

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  55. Kang HY, Suzuki I, Lee DJ, Ha J, Reiniche P, Aubert J, Deret S, Zugaj D, Voegel JJ, Ortonne JP (2011) Transcriptional profiling shows altered expression of wnt pathway- and lipid metabolism-related genes as well as melanogenesis-related genes in melasma. J Investig Dermatol 131(8):1692–1700. doi:10.1038/jid.2011.109

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  56. Kang S, Chung JH, Lee JH, Fisher GJ, Wan YS, Duell EA, Voorhees JJ (2003) Topical N-acetyl cysteine and genistein prevent ultraviolet-light-induced signaling that leads to photoaging in human skin in vivo. J Investig Dermatol 120(5):835–841. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.2003.12122.x

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  57. Kang SJ, Davis SA, Feldman SR, McMichael AJ (2014) Dyschromia in skin of color. J Drugs Dermatol JDD 13(4):401–406

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Kim EH, Kim YC, Lee ES, Kang HY (2007) The vascular characteristics of melasma. J Dermatol Sci 46(2):111–116. doi:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2007.01.009

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  59. Koh D, Wang H, Lee J, Chia KS, Lee HP, Goh CL (2003) Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the skin: analysis of the Singapore Cancer Registry data 1968–97. Br J Dermatol 148(6):1161–1166

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  60. Kotrajaras R, Kligman AM (1993) The effect of topical tretinoin on photodamaged facial skin: the Thai experience. Br J Dermatol 129(3):302–309

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  61. Krishnamurthy S (1992) The geography of non-ocular malignant melanoma in India: its association with latitude, ozone levels and UV light exposure. Int J Cancer 51(2):169–172

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  62. Lacz NL, Vafaie J, Kihiczak NI, Schwartz RA (2004) Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: a common but troubling condition. Int J Dermatol 43(5):362–365. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2004.02267.x

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  63. Lakhdar H, Zouhair K, Khadir K, Essari A, Richard A, Seite S, Rougier A (2007) Evaluation of the effectiveness of a broad-spectrum sunscreen in the prevention of chloasma in pregnant women. J Eur Acad Dermat Venereol JEADV 21(6):738–742. doi:10.1111/j.1468-3083.2007.02185.x

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  64. Lee DJ, Lee J, Ha J, Park KC, Ortonne JP, Kang HY (2012) Defective barrier function in melasma skin. J Eur Acad Dermat Venereol JEADV 26(12):1533–1537. doi:10.1111/j.1468-3083.2011.04337.x

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. Lee SG, Ko NY, Son SW, Bae HJ, Ha JS, Pak HY, Shin YS (2013) The impact of ozone depletion on skin cancer incidence in Korea. Br J Dermatol 169(5):1164–1165. doi:10.1111/bjd.12472

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  66. Lin FH, Lin JY, Gupta RD, Tournas JA, Burch JA, Selim MA, Monteiro-Riviere NA, Grichnik JM, Zielinski J, Pinnell SR (2005) Ferulic acid stabilizes a solution of vitamins C and E and doubles its photoprotection of skin. J Investig Dermatol 125(4):826–832. doi:10.1111/j.0022-202X.2005.23768.x

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  67. Lin JY, Selim MA, Shea CR, Grichnik JM, Omar MM, Monteiro-Riviere NA, Pinnell SR (2003) UV photoprotection by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E. J Am Acad Dermatol 48(6):866–874. doi:10.1067/mjd.2003.425

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  68. Lindqvist PG, Epstein E, Landin-Olsson M, Ingvar C, Nielsen K, Stenbeck M, Olsson H (2014) Avoidance of sun exposure is a risk factor for all-cause mortality: results from the Melanoma in Southern Sweden cohort. J Intern Med 276(1):77–86. doi:10.1111/joim.12251

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  69. Mahler HI (2014) Reasons for using and failing to use sunscreen: comparison among whites, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific Islanders in Southern California. JAMA dermatology 150(1):90–91. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2013.4992

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  70. Mahmoud BH, Ruvolo E, Hexsel CL, Liu Y, Owen MR, Kollias N, Lim HW, Hamzavi IH (2010) Impact of long-wavelength UVA and visible light on melanocompetent skin. J Investig Dermatol 130(8):2092–2097. doi:10.1038/jid.2010.95

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  71. Marionnet C, Grether-Beck S, Seite S, Marini A, Jaenicke T, Lejeune F, Bastien P, Rougier A, Bernerd F, Krutmann J (2011) A broad-spectrum sunscreen prevents UVA radiation-induced gene expression in reconstructed skin in vitro and in human skin in vivo. Exp Dermatol 20(6):477–482. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0625.2011.01265.x

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  72. Martin L, Caperton C, Wollert-Lloyd H, Avashia N (2012) A randomized double-blind placebo controlled study evaluating the effectiveness and tolerability of oral Polypodium leucotomos in patients with melasma. J Am Acad Dermatol 66(4, Suppl 1):AB21

    Google Scholar 

  73. Masu S, Seiji M (1983) Pigmentary incontinence in fixed drug eruptions. Histologic and electron microscopic findings. J Am Acad Dermatol 8(4):525–532

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  74. Matsuoka LY, Schauer PK, Sordillo PP (1981) Basal cell carcinoma in black patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 4(6):670–672

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  75. McCall CO, Chen SC (2002) Squamous cell carcinoma of the legs in African Americans. J Am Acad Dermatol 47(4):524–529

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  76. Medicine Io (2011) Dietary reference intakes for adequacy: calcium and vitamin D; implications and special concerns. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. National Academies Press, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  77. Merriam-Webster “Ethnicity”. www.Merriam-Webster.com

    Google Scholar 

  78. Mersha TB, Abebe T (2015) Self-reported race/ethnicity in the age of genomic research: its potential impact on understanding health disparities. Hum Genomics 9(1):1. doi:10.1186/PREACCEPT-2695828013752627

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  79. Middelkamp-Hup MA, Pathak MA, Parrado C, Garcia-Caballero T, Rius-Diaz F, Fitzpatrick TB, Gonzalez S (2004) Orally administered Polypodium leucotomos extract decreases psoralen-UVA-induced phototoxicity, pigmentation, and damage of human skin. J Am Acad Dermatol 50(1):41–49. doi:10.1016/S0190

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  80. Moin A, Jabery Z, Fallah N (2006) Prevalence and awareness of melasma during pregnancy. Int J Dermatol 45(3):285–288. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2004.02470.x

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  81. Montagna W, Carlisle K (1991) The architecture of black and white facial skin. J Am Acad Dermatol 24(6 Pt 1):929–937

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  82. Mora RG, Burris R (1981) Cancer of the skin in blacks: a review of 128 patients with basal-cell carcinoma. Cancer 47(6):1436–1438

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  83. Mora RG, Perniciaro C (1981) Cancer of the skin in blacks. I. A review of 163 black patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 5(5):535–543

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  84. Moyal D (2012) Need for a well-balanced sunscreen to protect human skin from both Ultraviolet A and Ultraviolet B damage. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 78(Suppl 1):S24–S30. doi:10.4103/0378-6323.97352

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  85. Newman P, Herman J (2009) Ozone and UV: Where are we now? Skin Cancer Found J 27:38–42

    Google Scholar 

  86. Obaidi J, Musallam E, Al-Ghzawi HM, Azzeghaiby SN, Alzoghaibi IN (2015) Vitamin d and its relationship with breast cancer: an evidence based practice paper. Glob J Health Sci 7(1):35687. doi:10.5539/gjhs.v7n1p261

    Google Scholar 

  87. Oppenheimer GM (2001) Paradigm lost: race, ethnicity, and the search for a new population taxonomy. Am J Public Health 91(7):1049–1055

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  88. Ortonne JP (1992) Retinoic acid and pigment cells: a review of in-vitro and in-vivo studies. Br J Dermatol 127(Suppl 41):43–47

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  89. Pandeya N, Purdie DM, Green A, Williams G (2005) Repeated occurrence of basal cell carcinoma of the skin and multifailure survival analysis: follow-up data from the Nambour Skin Cancer Prevention Trial. Am J Epidemiol 161(8):748–754. doi:10.1093/aje/kwi098

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  90. Pennello G, Devesa S, Gail M (2000) Association of surface ultraviolet B radiation levels with melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer in United States blacks. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev Publ Am Assoc Cancer Res (Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology) 9(3):291–297

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  91. Pichon LC, Corral I, Landrine H, Mayer JA, Norman GJ (2010) Sun-protection behaviors among African Americans. Am J Prev Med 38(3):288–295. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2009.10.041

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  92. Pichon LC, Landrine H, Corral I, Hao Y, Mayer JA, Hoerster KD (2010) Measuring skin cancer risk in African Americans: is the Fitzpatrick Skin Type Classification Scale culturally sensitive? Ethn Dis 20(2):174–179

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  93. Position statement developed in 2006. http://www.dermcoll.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Risks_and_Benefits_of_Sun_Exposure03May07.pdf. Accessed Jan 2015

  94. Powe CE, Evans MK, Wenger J, Zonderman AB, Berg AH, Nalls M, Tamez H, Zhang D, Bhan I, Karumanchi SA, Powe NR, Thadhani R (2013) Vitamin D-binding protein and vitamin D status of black Americans and white Americans. N Engl J Med 369(21):1991–2000

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  95. Resnik S (1967) Melasma induced by oral contraceptive drugs. JAMA 199(9):601–605

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  96. Rigopoulos D, Gregoriou S, Katsambas A (2007) Hyperpigmentation and melasma. J Cosmet Dermatol 6(3):195–202. doi:10.1111/j.1473-2165.2007.00321.x

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  97. Rijken F, Bruijnzeel PL, van Weelden H, Kiekens RC (2004) Responses of black and white skin to solar-simulating radiation: differences in DNA photodamage, infiltrating neutrophils, proteolytic enzymes induced, keratinocyte activation, and IL-10 expression. J Investig Dermatol 122(6):1448–1455. doi:10.1111/j.0022-202X.2004.22609.x

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  98. Rouhani P, Pinheiro PS, Sherman R, Arheart K, Fleming LE, Mackinnon J, Kirsner RS (2010) Increasing rates of melanoma among nonwhites in Florida compared with the United States. Arch Dermatol 146(7):741–746. doi:10.1001/archdermatol.2010.133

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  99. Sanchez MR (2003) Cutaneous diseases in Latinos. Dermatol Clin 21(4):689–697

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  100. Sanchez NP, Pathak MA, Sato S, Fitzpatrick TB, Sanchez JL, Mihm MC Jr (1981) Melasma: a clinical, light microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunofluorescence study. J Am Acad Dermatol 4(6):698–710

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  101. Scotto J, Fears T, Fraumeni JJ (1983) Incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in the United States. http://www.ciesin.org/docs/001-526/001-526.html. Accessed Jan 2015

  102. Scragg R, Sowers M, Bell C, Third National H, Nutrition Examination S (2004) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, diabetes, and ethnicity in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetes Care 27(12):2813–2818

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  103. Seite S, Fourtanier A, Moyal D, Young AR (2010) Photodamage to human skin by suberythemal exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation can be attenuated by sunscreens: a review. Br J Dermatol 163(5):903–914. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2010.10018.x

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  104. Seite S, Fourtanier AM (2008) The benefit of daily photoprotection. J Am Acad Dermatol 58(5 Suppl 2):S160–S166. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2007.04.036

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  105. Sheehan JM, Cragg N, Chadwick CA, Potten CS, Young AR (2002) Repeated ultraviolet exposure affords the same protection against DNA photodamage and erythema in human skin types II and IV but is associated with faster DNA repair in skin type IV. J Investig Dermatol 118(5):825–829. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.2002.01681.x

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  106. Singh B, Bhaya M, Shaha A, Har-El G, Lucente FE (1998) Presentation, course, and outcome of head and neck skin cancer in African Americans: a case-control study. Laryngoscope 108(8 Pt 1):1159–1163

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  107. Skaaby T (2015) The relationship of vitamin D status to risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Danish Med J 61(2)

    Google Scholar 

  108. Smit NP, Vink AA, Kolb RM, Steenwinkel MJ, van den Berg PT, van Nieuwpoort F, Roza L, Pavel S (2001) Melanin offers protection against induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6–4 photoproducts by UVB in cultured human melanocytes. Photochem Photobiol 74(3):424–430

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  109. Tadokoro T, Kobayashi N, Zmudzka BZ, Ito S, Wakamatsu K, Yamaguchi Y, Korossy KS, Miller SA, Beer JZ, Hearing VJ (2003) UV-induced DNA damage and melanin content in human skin differing in racial/ethnic origin. FASEB J Off Publ Fed Am Soc Exp Biol 17(9):1177–1179. doi:10.1096/fj.02-0865fje

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  110. Tadokoro T, Yamaguchi Y, Batzer J, Coelho SG, Zmudzka BZ, Miller SA, Wolber R, Beer JZ, Hearing VJ (2005) Mechanisms of skin tanning in different racial/ethnic groups in response to ultraviolet radiation. J Investig Dermatol 124(6):1326–1332. doi:10.1111/j.0022-202X.2005.23760.x

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  111. Taylor SC, Cook-Bolden F (2002) Defining skin of color. Cutis 69(6):435–437

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  112. Tewari A, Sarkany RP, Young AR (2012) UVA1 induces cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers but not 6–4 photoproducts in human skin in vivo. J Investig Dermatol 132(2):394–400. doi:10.1038/jid.2011.283

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  113. Thompson SC, Jolley D, Marks R (1993) Reduction of solar keratoses by regular sunscreen use. N Engl J Med 329(16):1147–1151. doi:10.1056/NEJM199310143291602

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  114. Toda K, Pathak MA, Parrish JA, Fitzpatrick TB, Quevedo WC Jr (1972) Alteration of racial differences in melanosome distribution in human epidermis after exposure to ultraviolet light. Nature New Biol 236(66):143–145

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  115. Tomita Y, Maeda K, Tagami H (1992) Melanocyte-stimulating properties of arachidonic acid metabolites: possible role in postinflammatory pigmentation. Pigment Cell Res (Sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society) 5(5 Pt 2):357–361

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  116. Tsoureli-Nikita E, Watson RE, Griffiths CE (2006) Photoageing: the darker side of the sun. Photochem Photobiol Sci Off J Eur Photochem Assoc Eur Soc Photobiol 5(2):160–164. doi:10.1039/b507492d

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  117. van der Pols JC, Williams GM, Pandeya N, Logan V, Green AC (2006) Prolonged prevention of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin by regular sunscreen use. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev Publ Am Assoc Cancer Res (Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology) 15(12):2546–2548. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0352

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  118. Victor FC, Gelber J, Rao B (2004) Melasma: a review. J Cutan Med Surg 8(2):97–102. doi:10.1007/s10227-004-0158-9

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  119. Vidal-Ortiz S (2008) People of Color. In: Schaefer RT (ed) Encyclopedia of race, ethnicity, and society. SAGE Publications, Los Angeles, pp 1037–1039

    Google Scholar 

  120. Warren R, Gartstein V, Kligman AM, Montagna W, Allendorf RA, Ridder GM (1991) Age, sunlight, and facial skin: a histologic and quantitative study. J Am Acad Dermatol 25(5 Pt 1):751–760

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  121. Weinstock MA (1993) Nonmelanoma skin cancer mortality in the United States, 1969 through 1988. Arch Dermatol 129(10):1286–1290

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  122. Weinstock MA, Moses AM (2009) Skin cancer meets vitamin D: the way forward for dermatology and public health. J Am Acad Dermatol 61(4):720–724. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2009.04.016

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  123. World Health Organization (2002) Global solar UV index: a practical guide. http://www.who.int/uv/publications/en/UVIGuide.pdf. Accessed 21 Jan 2015

  124. Wingo PA, Bolden S, Tong T, Parker SL, Martin LM, Heath CW Jr (1996) Cancer statistics for African Americans, 1996. CA Cancer J Clinicians 46(2):113–125

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  125. Yang L, Lof M, Veierod MB, Sandin S, Adami HO, Weiderpass E (2011) Ultraviolet exposure and mortality among women in Sweden. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev Publ Am Assoc Cancer Res (Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology) 20(4):683–690. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0982

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  126. Yohn JJ, Lyons MB, Norris DA (1992) Cultured human melanocytes from black and white donors have different sunlight and ultraviolet A radiation sensitivities. J Investig Dermatol 99(4):454–459

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  127. Youn JI, Oh JK, Kim BK, Suh DH, Chung JH, Oh SJ, Kim JJ, Kang SH (1997) Relationship between skin phototype and MED in Korean, brown skin. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 13(5–6):208–211

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  128. Zeeb H, Greinert R (2010) The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention: does UV protection conflict with the need to raise low levels of vitamin D? Deutsches Arzteblatt Int 107(37):638–643. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2010.0638

    Google Scholar 

  129. Zheng Y, Zhu J, Zhou M, Cui L, Yao W, Liu Y (2013) Meta-analysis of long-term vitamin D supplementation on overall mortality. PLoS One 8(12):e82109. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082109

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Sandra Del Bino, MsD, and L’Oreal Research and Innovation for provision of Fig. 7.1.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kesha J. Buster MD .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Buster, K.J., Ledet, J.J. (2016). Photoprotection and Skin of Color. In: Wang, S., Lim, H. (eds) Principles and Practice of Photoprotection. Adis, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-29382-0_7

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-29382-0_7

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Adis, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-29381-3

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-29382-0

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)