Pathophysiology of Vision

  • Orhan E. ArslanEmail author


The visual system is tasked with the function of processing visual impulses and recognizing visual images that incorporate associated memories. This system also mediates associated visual reflexes. To attain proper visual images, several neuronal stations at various areas of the central nervous system are utilized. Non-neuronal structures, such as the cornea, iris, anterior and posterior chambers of the eye, and the vitreous body, are also involved in directing visual images to the retina. Images that project to the retina are further transmitted through the optic nerve and optic tract and then through specific thalamic neurons to the visual cortex.

Despite the dependence of the visual system on the integrity of the cerebral cortex and other neuronal chains, vestibular neurons and gaze centers in the brain and brain stem remain important elements in securing coordinated eye movements and thus maintaining accurate binocular vision. Because of the diversity of the neuronal chain involved in transmission and construction of the visual image, lesions of one or more of these neuronal elements can result in partial or complete disorders that may be unilateral or bilateral.


Pupillary Refractive Drusen Retina Visual Optic Anopsia Radiation LGN Striate Brodmann Columns Vertebrobasilar 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Cell BiologyUniversity of South Florida Morsani College of MedicineTampaUSA

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