Pharmacological Considerations in Ophthalmic Drug Delivery

  • Nikhil A. SangaveEmail author
  • Charles Preuss
  • Yashwant Pathak


The eye is housed in a bony orbit, anchored by extraocular muscles and multiple layers of soft tissue. The globe is comprised of several layers including the sclera, uvea, and retina. The refractive elements of the eye include the lens and cornea, which provide refractive power necessary to focus light on the retina.

On a micro-molecular level, the intraocular environment is immunologically naïve. This sequestration is maintained by a complex series of active and passive transporters. Other biochemical elements, namely, enzymatic reactions and pH, dictate the level of metabolism in the eye. The unique nature of ocular anatomy and physiology presents similarly unique challenges for ophthalmic drug delivery. Thorough understanding of these clinically relevant facets may be important in developing solutions for drug delivery.


Drug delivery Ophthalmology Ocular anatomy Ocular physiology Ocular transporters Ocular pharmacology 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikhil A. Sangave
    • 1
    Email author
  • Charles Preuss
    • 2
  • Yashwant Pathak
    • 3
  1. 1.MCPHS UniversityUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, Morsani College of MedicineUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USF College of PharmacyUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA

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