Advertisement

Pharmacological Considerations in Ophthalmic Drug Delivery

  • Nikhil A. SangaveEmail author
  • Charles Preuss
  • Yashwant Pathak
Chapter

Abstract

The eye is housed in a bony orbit, anchored by extraocular muscles and multiple layers of soft tissue. The globe is comprised of several layers including the sclera, uvea, and retina. The refractive elements of the eye include the lens and cornea, which provide refractive power necessary to focus light on the retina.

On a micro-molecular level, the intraocular environment is immunologically naïve. This sequestration is maintained by a complex series of active and passive transporters. Other biochemical elements, namely, enzymatic reactions and pH, dictate the level of metabolism in the eye. The unique nature of ocular anatomy and physiology presents similarly unique challenges for ophthalmic drug delivery. Thorough understanding of these clinically relevant facets may be important in developing solutions for drug delivery.

Keywords

Drug delivery Ophthalmology Ocular anatomy Ocular physiology Ocular transporters Ocular pharmacology 

References

  1. 1.
    Chalam KV (2011) Fundamentals and principles of ophthalmology: section 2, 2011–2012. American Academy of Ophthalmology, San Francisco, PrintGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Henderer J, Rapuano C (2011) Ocular pharmacology. In: Goodman and Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 12th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, chapter 64Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yanoff M, Duker JS (2014) Ophthalmology, 4th edn. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia/Pennsylvania, PrintGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bores LD (2008) Ocular anatomy – anterior segment. Ocular anatomy, 15 Jan 2008. Web. 08 Oct 2014Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zimmerman TJ (1997) Textbook of ocular pharmacology. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, PrintGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Netland PA (2007) Ocular pharmacology. In: Glaucoma medical therapy principles and management, 2nd edn. Oxford UP In Cooperation with the American Academy of Ophthalmology, New York, p 13, PrintGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ron Melton OD, Randall Thomas OD (2014) A clinical guide to ophthalmic drugs. Rev Optom:1A–34A. Review of Optometry. Bausch and Lomb. Web. 10 Aug. 2014 https://www.reviewofoptometry.com/publications/clinical-guide-to-ophthalmic-drugs2014
  8. 8.
    Mantych GJ (1993) Characterization of glucose transporter isoforms in the adult and developing human eye. Endocrinology 133(2):600–607, PubMed. Web. 5 May 2014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kumagai AK, Glasgow BJ, Pardridge WM (1994) GLUT1 glucose transporter expression in the diabetic and nondiabetic human eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 35(6):2887–894, Web. 7 July 2014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gaudana R, Jwala J, Boddu SHS, Mitra AK (2009) Recent perspectives in ocular drug delivery. Pharm Res 26(5):1197–216, WebCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Levin LA, Francis Heed A (2011) Adler’s physiology of the eye, 11th edn. Saunders/Elsevier, Edingburg, PrintGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Molokhia SA, Thomas SC, Garff KJ, Mandell KJ, Wirostko BM (2013) Anterior eye segment drug delivery systems: current treatments and future challenges. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 29(2):92–105, Web. 17 July 2014CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikhil A. Sangave
    • 1
    Email author
  • Charles Preuss
    • 2
  • Yashwant Pathak
    • 3
  1. 1.MCPHS UniversityUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, Morsani College of MedicineUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USF College of PharmacyUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA

Personalised recommendations