Advertisement

Human Herpesvirus-6, -7, and -8 After Solid Organ Transplantation

  • Nina Singh
Chapter

Abstract

HHV-6 is a beta herpes virus that establishes latency after primary infection with most infections occurring in the childhood. Active HHV-6 infection occurs in 20–50 % of transplant recipients and is largely due to endogenous reactivation of the latent virus. Infection typically develops in the early posttransplant period. The most frequently observed clinical features of HHV-6 are febrile dermatosis and bone marrow suppression and less commonly encephalitis, interstitial pneumonitis, and hepatitis. HHV-6 also has immunomodulatory effects that may facilitate superinfections with other opportunistic infections, particularly CMV and fungal infections. Treatment of HHV-6 remains challenging. Based on in vitro and anecdotal data, ganciclovir, foscarnet, and cidofovir have been used clinically. The role of HHV-7 as a pathogen in transplant recipients is not fully defined. KSHV is the etiologic agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS). The incidence of posttransplant KS varies widely and largely parallels the geographic seroprevalence of KSHV. Cutaneous lesions are most common; however, up to 40 % of transplant recipients may develop visceral disease. Reduction or withdrawal of immunosuppression remains the mainstay of the management of KS in transplant recipients.

Keywords

Human herpesvirus-6 Human herpesvirus-7 Human herpesvirus-8 Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus Encephalitis Transplant Bone marrow suppression 

References

  1. 1.
    Biberfeld P, Kramarsky B, Salahuddin SZ, Gallo RC. Ultrastructural characterization of a new human B lymphotropic DNA virus (human herpesvirus 6) and human cytomegalovirus. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1987;79:933–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yoshida M, Uno F, Bai ZL, et al. Electron microscopic study of a herpesvirus-type virus isolated from an infant with exanthem subitum. Microbiol Immunol. 1989;33:147–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lawrence GL, Chee M, Craxton MA, Gompels UA, Honess RW, Barrell BG. Human herpesvirus-6 is closely related to human cytomegalovirus. J Virol. 1990;64:287–99.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lusso P, Gallo RC. Human herpesvirus-6 in AIDS. Immunol Today. 1995;16:67–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Takahashi K, Sonoda S, Higashi K. T-lymphocyte tropism of human herpesvirus 6-related virus. J Virol. 1989;63:3161–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Agut H. Puzzles concerning the pathogenicity of human herpesvirus-6 (Editorial). N Engl J Med. 1994;329:203–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Flamand L, Gosselin J, Stefanescu I, Ablashi D, Menezes J. Immunosuppressive effect of human herpesvirus 6 on T-cell functions: suppression of interleukin-2 synthesis and cell proliferation. Blood. 1995;85:1263–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arena A, Liberto MC, Iannello D, Capozza AB, Foca A. Altered cytokine production after human herpes virus type 6 infection. New Microbiol. 1999;22(4):293–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Knox KK, Carrigan DR. In vitro suppression of marrow progenitor cell differentiation by human herpesvirus-6 infection. J Infect Dis. 1992;165:925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ablashi DV, Agut H, Berneman Z. Human herpesvirus-6 strain groups: a nomenclature. Arch Virol. 1993;129:363–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schirmer EC, Wyatt LS, Yamanishi K. Differentiation between two distinct classes of viruses now classified as human herpesvirus-6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:5922–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cone RW, Huang MLW, Corey L, Zeh J, Ashley R, Bowden R. Human herpesvirus 6 infections after bone marrow transplantation: clinical and virologic manifestations. J Infect Dis. 1999;179:311–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yoshikawa T, Suga S, Asano Y, Yazaki T, Kodama H, Ozaki T. Distribution of antibodies to a causative agent of exanthem subitum (human herpesvirus-6) in healthy individuals. Pediatrics. 1989;84:675–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Okuno T, Takahashi K, Balachandra K, Shiraki K, Yamanishi K, Mea T. Seroepidemiology of human herpesvirus 6 infection in normal children and adults. J Clin Microbiol. 1989;27:651–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ljungman P, Singh N. Human herpesvirus-6 infection in solid organ and stem cell transplant recipients. J Clin Virol. 2006;37:S87–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jarrett RF, Clark DA, Josephs SF, Onions DE. Detection of human herpesvirus-6 DNA in peripheral blood and saliva. J Virol. 1990;32:73–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Clark DA, Nacheva EP, Leong HN, et al. Transmission of integrated human herpesvirus 6 through stem cell transplantation: implications for laboratory diagnosis. J Infect Dis. 2006;193(7):912–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Troy SB, Blackburn BG, Yeom K, Caulfield AK, Bhangoo MS, Montoya JG. Severe encephalomyelitis in an immunocompetent adult with chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 and clinical response to treatment with foscarnet plus ganciclovir. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47(12):e93–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hubacek P, Muzikova K, Hrdlickova A, et al. Prevalence of HHV-6 integrated chromosomally among children treated for acute lymphoblastic or myeloid leukemia in the Czech Republic. J Med Virol. 2009;81(2):258–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nacheva EP, Ward KN, Brazma D, et al. Human herpesvirus 6 integrates within telomeric regions as evidenced by five different chromosomal sites. J Med Virol. 2008;80(11):1952–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tanaka H, Shirakawa S. Sleep health, lifestyle and mental health in the Japanese elderly: ensuring sleep to promote a healthy brain and mind. J Psychosom Res. 2004;56(5):465–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hill JA, Sedlak RH, Zerr DM, et al. Prevalence of chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 in patients with human herpesvirus 6-central nervous system dysfunction. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2015;21(2):371–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dockrell DH, Prada J, Jones MF, et al. Seroconversion to human herpesvirus 6 following liver transplantation is a marker of cytomegalovirus disease. J Infect Dis. 1997;176:1135–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yoshikawa T, Ihira M, Suzuki K, et al. Primary human herpesvirus 6 infection in liver transplant recipients. J Pediatr. 2001;138:921–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Asano Y, Yoshikawa T, Suga S. Human herpesvirus 6 harbouring in kidney. Lancet. 1989;2:1391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yoshikawa T, Suga S, Asano Y, Nakashima T, Yazaki T, Ono Y. A prospective study of human herpesvirus-6 infection in renal transplantation. Transplantation. 1992;54:879–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rossi C, Delforge ML, Jacobs F, et al. Fatal primary infection due to human herpesvirus 6 variant A in a renal transplant recipient. Transplantation. 2001;71:288–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Okuno T, Higashi K, Shirak K, Yamanishi K, Takahashi M, Kokado Y. Human herpesvirus 6 infection in renal transplantation. Transplantation. 1990;49:519–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Morris DJ, Littler E, Arrand JR, Jordon D, Mallick NP, Johnson RW. Human herpesvirus 6 infection in renal-transplant recipients [Letter]. N Engl J Med. 1989;320:1560–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lautenschlager I, Linnavuori K, Hockerstedt K. Human herpesvirus-6 antigenemia after transplantation. Transplantation. 2000;69:2561–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    de Ona M, Melon S, Rodriguez JL, Sanmartin JC, Bernardo MJ. Association between human herpesvirus type 6 and type 7, and cytomegalovirus disease in heart transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2002;34(1):75–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chou SW, Scott KM. Rises in antibody to human herpesvirus 6 detected by enzyme immunoassay in transplant patients with primary cytomegalovirus infection. J Clin Microbiol. 1990;28:851–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jacobs F, Knoop C, Brancart F, et al. Human herpesvirus-6 infection after lung and heart-lung transplantation: a prospective longitudinal study. Transplantation. 2003;75:1996–2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rogers J, Singh N, Carrigan DR, et al. Clinical relevance of human herpesvirus-6 infection in liver transplant recipients: role in pathogenesis of fungal infections, neurologic complications, and impact on outcome. Transplantation. 2000;69:2566–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Herbein G, Strasswimmer J, Altieri M, Woehl-Jaegle ML, Wolfe P, Obert G. Longitudinal study of human herpesvirus-6 in organ transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 1996;22:171–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ihira M, Yoshikawa T, Suzuki K, et al. Correlation between human herpesvirus 6 and 7 infections after living related liver transplantation. Microbiol Immunol. 2001;45:225–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Singh N, Carrigan DR. Human herpesvirus-6 in transplantation: an emerging pathogen. Ann Intern Med. 1996;124:1065–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Griffiths PD, Ait-Khaled M, Bearcroft CP, et al. Human herpesviruses 6 and 7 as potential pathogens after liver transplant: prospective comparison with the effect of cytomegalovirus. J Med Virol. 1999;59:496–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nash PJ, Avery RK, Tang WHW, Starling RC, Taege AJ, Yarnani MH. Encephalitis owing to human herpesvirus-6 after cardiac transplant. Am J Transplant. 2004;4:1200–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Deborska D, Durik M, Sadowska A, et al. Human herpesvirus-6 in renal transplant recipients: potential risk factors for the development of human herpesvirus-6 seroconversion. Transplant Proc. 2003;35:2199–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lautenschlager I, Harma M, Hockerstedt K, Linnavuori K, Loginov R, Taskinen E. Human herpesvirus-6 infection is associated with adhesion molecule induction and lymphocyte infiltration in liver allografts. J Hepatol. 2002;37(5):648–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Humar A, Kumar D, Raboud J, et al. Interactions between cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus-6, and the recurrence of hepatitis C after liver transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2002;2:461–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kidd IM, Clark DA, Sabin CA, et al. Prospective study of human betaherpesviruses after renal transplantation. Transplantation. 2000;69:2400–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tong CYW, Bakran A, Peiris JSM, et al. The association of viral infection and chronic allograft nephropathy with graft dysfunction after renal transplantation. Transplantation. 2002;74:576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Acott PD, Crocker JFS, Lee S. Simulect and HHV-6 in pediatric renal transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2004;36(Suppl 2S):483S–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tanaka M, Taguchi J, Hyo R, et al. Human herpesvirus-6 encephalitis after unrelated cord blood transplantation. Leuk Lymphoma. 2005;46(4):561–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yamane A, Mori T, Suzuki S, et al. Risk factors for developing human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) reactivation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and its association with central nervous system disorders. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2007;13(1):100–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Singh N, Carrigan DR, Gayowski T, Marino IR. Human herpesvirus-6 infection in liver transplant recipients: documentation of pathogenicity. Transplantation. 1997;64:674–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Isomura H, Yamada M, Yoshida M, et al. Suppressive effects of human herpesvirus 6 on in vitro colony formation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. J Med Virol. 1997;52:406–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zerr DM, Gupta D, Huang ML, Carter R, Corey L. Effect of antivirals on human herpesvirus 6 replication in hemataopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:309–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wang FZ, Linde A, Hagglund H, Testa M, Locasciulli A, Ljungman P. Human herpesvirus 6 DNA in cerebrospinal fluid specimens from allogeneic bone marrow transplant patients: does it have clinical significance? Clin Infect Dis. 1999;28:562–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Singh N, Paterson DL. Encephalitis due to human herpesvirus-6 in transplant recipients: clinical relevance of a novel neurotropic virus. Transplantation. 2000;69:2474–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Zerr DM, Gooley TA, Young L, et al. Human herpesvirus 6 reactivation and encephalitis in allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:763–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Seeley WW, Marty FM, Holmes TM, et al. Post-transplant acute limbic encephalitis clinical features and relationship to HHV6. Neurology. 2007;69:156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Chamberlain MC, Chowdhary S. Post-transplant acute limbic encephalitis: clinical features and relationship to HHV6. Neurology. 2008;70:491–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Appleton AL, Sviland L, Peiris JSM, et al. Human herpes virus-6 infection in marrow graft recipients: role in pathogenesis of graft-versus-host disease. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1995;16:777–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chan PKS, Peiris JSM, Yuen KY, et al. Human herpesvirus-6 and human herpesvirus-7 infections in bone marrow transplant recipients. J Med Virol. 1997;53:295–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Le Cleach L, Joberty C, Fillet AM, et al. Human herpesvirus 6 infection in patients with exanthema after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Arch Dermatol. 1998;134(6):759–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Nishimaki K, Okada S, Miyamura K, et al. The possible involvement of human herpesvirus type 6 in obliterative bronchiolitis after bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2003;32:1103–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Zasshi Z. Pneumonitis with bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia-like shadow in a patient with herpes virus-6 viremia after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. J Jpn Assoc Infect Dis. 2002;76(5):385–90.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ross DJ, Chan RCK, Kubak B, Laks H, Nichols WS. Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia: possible association with human herpesvirus-7 infection after lung transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2001;33:2603–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Delbridge MS, Karim MS, Shrestha BM, McKane W. Colitis in a renal transplant patient with human herpesvirus-6 infection. Transpl Infect Dis. 2006;8(4):226–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dharancy S, Crombe V, Copin MC, et al. Fatal hemophagocytic syndrome related to human herpesvirus-6 reinfection following liver transplantation: a case report. Transplant Proc. 2008;40(10):3791–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lamoth F, Jayet PY, Aubert JD, et al. Case report: human herpesvirus 6 reactivation associated with colitis in a lung transplant recipient. J Med Virol. 2008;80(10):1804–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Singh N, Husain S, Carrigan DR, et al. Impact of human herpesvirus-6 on the frequency and severity of recurrent hepatitis C virus hepatitis in liver transplant recipients. Clin Transplant. 2002;16:92–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Friedman SL. Cytokines and fibrogenesis. Semin Liver Dis. 1999;19:129–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zein NN. Tumor necrosis factor gene promoter polymorphism and recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation: the missing link to pathogenesis or a casual association? Liver Transpl. 2000;6:381–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lee SO, Brown RA, Razonable RR. Clinical significance of pretransplant chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus-6 in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2011;92(2):224–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Randhawa PS, Jenkins FJ, Nalesnik MA, et al. Herpesvirus 6 variant A infection after heart transplantation with giant cell transformation in bile ductular and gastroduodenal epithelium. Am J Surg Pathol. 1997;21(7):847–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pellet PA, Black JB, Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, et al. Human herpesvirus 6. Fields virology, vol. 3. Philadelphia: Lippencott-Raven; 1996. p. 2587–608.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Carrigan DR, Milburn G, Dlenglewicz R, Kernen N, Papadopoulias E, Singh N. Diagnosis of active human herpesvirus six (HHV-6) infections in immunosuppression and patients with rapid shell-vial assay [Abstract]. In: Abstracts of the 96th general meeting of the American Society for microbiology, New Orleans. Am Soc Microbiol. 1996.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Nitsche A, Muller CW, Radonic A, et al. Human herpesvirus 6A DNA Is detected frequently in plasma but rarely in peripheral blood leukocytes of patients after bone marrow transplantation. J Infect Dis. 2001;183(1):130–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    De Bolle L, Michel D, Mertens T, et al. Role of the human herpesvirus 6 U69-encoded kinase in the phosphorylation of ganciclovir. Mol Pharmacol. 2002;62:714–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Tokimasa S, Hara J, Osugi Y, et al. Ganciclovir is effective for prophylaxis and treatment of human herpesvirus-6 in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2002;29:595–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bapat AR, Bodner AJ, Ting RC, Cheng YC. Identification and some properties of a unique DNA polymerase from cells infected with human B-lymphotropic virus. J Virol. 1989;63(3):1400–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Galarraga MC, Gomez E, de Ona M, et al. Influence of ganciclovir prophylaxis on citomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 6, and human herpesvirus 7 viremia in renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2005;37(5):2124–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Razonable RR, Brown RA, Humar A, et al. Herpesvirus infections in solid organ transplant patients at high risk of primary cytomegalovirus disease. J Infect Dis. 2005;192(8):1331–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Tiacci E, Luppi M, Barozzi P, et al. Fatal herpesvirus-6 encephalitis in a recipient of a T-cell-depleted peripheral blood stem cell transplant from a 3-loci mismatched related donor. Haematologica. 2000;85(1):94–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Akhyani N, Fotheringham J, Yao K, Rashti F, Jacobson S. Efficacy of antiviral compounds in human herpesvirus-6-infected glial cells. J Neurovirol. 2006;12(4):284–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Isegawa Y, Hara J, Amo K, et al. Human herpesvirus 6 ganciclovir-resistant strain with amino acid substitutions associated with the death of an allogeneic stem cell transplant recipient. J Clin Virol. 2009;44(1):15–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Prichard M, Daily S, Perry A, Kern E. Maribavir inhibits the replication of human herpesvirus 6 and the activity of the U69 protein kinase. J Antiviral. 2008;78:A29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Prichard MN, Frederick SL, Daily S, et al. Benzimidazole analogs inhibit human herpesvirus 6. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55(5):2442–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bonnafous P, Bogaert S, Godet AN, Agut H. HDP-CDV as an alternative for treatment of human herpesvirus-6 infections. J Clin Virol. 2013;56(2):175–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ablashi DV, Berneman ZN, Kramarsky B, Asano Y, Choudhury S, Pearson GR. Human herpesvirus-7. In Vivo. 1994;8:549–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Torigoe S, Koide W, Yamada M, Miyashiro E, Tanaka-Taya K, Yamanishi K. Human herpesvirus 7 infection associated with central nervous system manifestations. J Pediatr. 1996;129(2):301–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wang FZ, Dahl H, Linde A, Brytting M, Ehrnst A, Ljugman P. Lymphotrophic herpesviruses in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Blood. 1996;88:3615–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Osman HKE, Peiris JSM, Taylor CE, Warwicker P, Jarrett RF, Madeley CR. Cytomegalovirus disease in renal allograft recipients: is human herpesvirus-7 a cofactor for disease progression? J Med Virol. 1996;48:295–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Mendez JC, Dockrell DH, Espy MJ, et al. Human beta-herpesvirus interactions in solid organ transplant recipients. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:179–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Chan PK, Chik KW, To KF, et al. Case report: human herpesvirus 7 associated fatal encephalitis in a peripheral blood stem cell transplant recipient. J Med Virol. 2002;66(4):493–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Yoshida M, Yamada M, Tsukazaki T, et al. Comparison of antiviral compounds against human herpesvirus 6 and 7. Antiviral Res. 1998;40(1–2):73–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Takahashi K, Suzuki M, Iwata Y, Shigeta S, Yamanishi K, De Clercq E. Selective activity of various nucleoside and nucleotide analogues against human herpesvirus 6 and 7. Antivir Chem Chemother. 1997;8(1):24–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Randhawa P, Brennan DC. BK virus infection in transplant recipients: an overview and update. Am J Transplant. 2006;6(9):2000–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Li M, Lee H, Yoon DW, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encodes a functional cyclin. J Virol. 1997;71(3):1984–91.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Boshoff C, Weiss RA. Aetiology of Kaposi’s sarcoma: current understanding and implications for therapy. Mol Med Today. 1997;3(11):488–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Moosa MR, Treurnicht FK, van Rensburg EJ, Schneider JW, Jordaan HF, Engelbrecht S. Detection and subtyping of human herpesvirus-8 in renal transplant patients before and after remission of Kaposi's sarcoma. Transplantation. 1998;66:214–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Penn I. Incidence and treatment of neoplasia after transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1993;12:S328–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Harwood AR, Osoba D, Hofstader SL, et al. Kaposi’s sarcoma in recipients of renal transplants. Am J Med. 1979;67:759–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hiesse C, Kriaa F, Rieu P, et al. Incidence and type of malignancies occurring after renal transplantation in conventionally and cyclosporine-treated recipients: analysis of a 20-year period in 1600 patients. Transplant Proc. 1995;27:972–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Montagnino G, Bencini PL, Tarantino A, Caputo R, Ponticelli C. Clinical features and course of Kaposi’s sarcoma in kidney transplant patients: report of 13 cases. Am J Nephrol. 1994;14:121–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Alkan S, Karcher DS, Ortiz A, Khalil S, Akhtar M, Ashraf Ali M. Human herpesvirus-8/Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in organ transplant patients with immunosuppression. Br J Haematol. 1996;96:412–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Al-Sulaiman M, Al-Khader AA. Kaposi’s sarcoma in renal transplant recipients. Transplant Sci. 1994;4:46–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Qunibi W, Akhtar M, Sheth K, et al. Kaposi’s sarcoma: the most common tumor after renal transplantation in Saudi Arabia. Am J Med. 1988;84:225–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Colina F, Lopez-Rios F, Lumbreras C, Martinez-Laso J, Garcia IG, Moreno-Gonzalez E. Kaposi's sarcoma developing in a liver graft. Brief Communications. Transplantation. 1996;61(12):1779–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Andreoni M, Goletti D, Pezzotti P, et al. Prevalence, incidence and correlates of HHV-8/KSHV infection and Kaposi’s sarcoma in renal and liver transplant recipients. J Infect. 2001;43(3):195–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Milliancourt C, Barete S, Marcelin AG, et al. Human herpesvirus-8 seroconversions after renal transplantation. Transplantation. 2001;72(7):1319–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Pellet C, Chevret S, Frances C, et al. Prognostic value of quantitative Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus load in posttransplantation Kaposi sarcoma. J Infect Dis. 2002;186(1):110–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Luppi M, Barozzi P, Schulz TF, et al. Bone marrow failure associated with human herpesvirus 8 infection after transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2000;343(19):1378–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Doutrelepont JM, De Pauw L, Gruber SA, et al. Renal transplantation exposes patients with previous Kaposi’s sarcoma to a high risk of recurrence. Transplantation. 1996;62(4):463–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Shepherd FA, Maher E, Cardella C, et al. Treatment of Kaposi’s sarcoma after solid organ transplantation. J Clin Oncol. 1997;15(6):2371–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Euvrard S, Kanitakis J, Bosshard S, et al. No recurrence of posttransplantation Kaposi’s sarcoma three years after renal retransplantation. Transplantation. 2002;73(2):297–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Neyts J, De Clercq E. Antiviral drug susceptibility of human herpesvirus 8. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997;41:2754–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Grossi P, Baldanti F, Corona A, et al. Kaposi saracoma following thoracic organ transplantation: prevalence, correlation with human herpes virus 8 and new therapeutic options. Transplantation. 1999;67:S39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Corbellino M, Bestetti G, Scalamogna C, et al. Long-term remission of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-related multicentric Castleman disease with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy. Blood. 2001;98(12):3473–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Antman K, Chang Y. Kaposi's sarcoma. Med Prog. 2000;342:1027–38.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sin SH, Roy D, Wang L, et al. Rapamycin is efficacious against primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell lines in vivo by inhibiting autocrine signaling. Blood. 2007;109(5):2165–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Stallone G, Schena A, Infante B, et al. Sirolimus for Kaposi’s sarcoma in renal-transplant recipients. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(13):1317–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Charfi S, Krichen-Makni S, Yaich S, et al. Successful treatment of post-renal transplant gastric and pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma with conversion to rapamycin treatment. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2007;18(4):617–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Boulanger E, Afonso PV, Yahiaoui Y, Adle-Biassette H, Gabarre J, Agbalika F. Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)-associated primary effusion lymphoma in two renal transplant recipients receiving rapamycin. Am J Transplant. 2008;8(3):707–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious DiseasesUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations