Typical and Atypical Mycobacterium Infections After Hematopoietic Stem Cell or Solid Organ Transplantation



Mycobacterial infections are infrequent among recipients of transplantation. These infections are more common among recipients of solid organ versus stem cell transplantation. Mortality is increased with multidrug-resistant strains or disseminated infections. Infection responds well to treatment, provided the diagnosis is made and treatment is initiated early in the course of disease. The incidence of tuberculosis varies by geographical location. Single drug treatment of latent infection is less toxic than multidrug therapy of active infection, so screening for and treating latent infection among high-risk transplant candidates is preferred. Both the tuberculin skin test and interferon gamma release assays can be used to screen for latent infection, which can then be treated prior to initiation of exogenous immunosuppression.


Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Hematopoietic stem cell transplant Renal transplant Heart transplant Lung transplant Interferon gamma release assay 


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Editor-in-Chief, Clinical Microbiology ReviewsAmerican Society of MicrobiologyWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUniversity of Minnesota Medical CenterMinneapolisUSA

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