Risks and Epidemiology of Infections After Liver Transplantation



Liver transplant recipients have a high risk of infectious complications, compared with recipients of other solid organs, despite the improvement in surgical techniques, shortening of operative times, and the development of novel anti-infective agents in the last decade. A careful examination of risk factors, diligent surveillance for early signs of infection, and prompt intervention are necessary to minimize serious infectious complications, which often contribute to graft loss and death in this population. Future strategies to develop diagnostic assays that are rapid, cost-effective, standardized, and easily performed will improve our abilities to prevent donor-transmitted infections. Ability to assess the immune competence of the recipients and to optimally prescribe appropriate antimicrobial prophylaxis will allow us to prevent infection. Areas such as liver transplant in HIV coinfection and the prevention of recurrence of viral hepatitides after transplantation have made some progress but require further research before the establishment of accepted therapeutic strategies.


Liver transplantation Infections Immunosuppression Viral Bacterial Fungal Transmission 



We would like to acknowledge the help of Dr. E. J. Kwak from University of Pittsburgh Medical Center who assisted in writing the previous edition of this chapter.


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Infectious DiseasesMayo ClinicPhoenixUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medicine/Infectious DiseasesMayo Clinic in ArizonaPhoenixUSA
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryYale New Haven HospitalNew HavenUSA

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