Risks and Epidemiology of Infections After Lung or Heart–Lung Transplantation

  • Oscar Len
  • Antonio Roman
  • Joan Gavaldà


Nowadays, lung transplantation is an established treatment option of end-stage pulmonary parenchymal and vascular disease. Post-transplant infections are a significant contributor to overall morbidity and mortality in the lung transplant recipient that, in turn, are higher than in other solid organ transplant recipients. This is likely due to several specific factors such as the constant exposure to the outside environment and the colonized native airway, and the disruption of usual mechanisms of defense including the cough reflex, bronchial circulation, and lymphatic drainage. This chapter will review the common infections that develop in the lung or heart–lung transplant recipient, including the general risk factors for infection in this population, and specific features of prophylaxis and treatment for the most frequent bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. The effects of infection on lung transplant rejection will also be discussed.


Lung transplantation Heart transplantation Immunosuppression Bacterial infection Cytomegalovirus Respiratory viruses Aspergillus 


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Infectious DiseasesHospital Universitari Vall d’HebronBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Department of PulmonologyHospital Universitari Vall d’HebronBarcelonaSpain

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