Introduction to ADHD

  • Hala Mohammed Berri
  • Anies Al-Hroub
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Psychology book series (BRIEFSPSYCHOL)


Historically, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been considered, on the one hand, to be a biological condition of the brain and, on the other, a psychological variant rather than a disorder, but over time it has come to be seen as a developmental neurological condition. Children with ADHD experience problems at school as a result of their behavior, and it is important for teachers to understand the disorder thoroughly. However, a number of research studies have shown that the gender of the child is likely to affect the teacher’s perceptions of ADHD and thus their decision as to whether a child with the disorder should be referred for support. Furthermore, much of the relevant research has been conducted in Western countries but very little in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. In southern Lebanon, teachers’ knowledge about ADHD is very poorly developed, and thus, the focus of our research was to investigate to what degree a group of Lebanese teachers understood the disorder and whether any gender bias on their part affects their response to it.


ADHD definition ADHD and gender Teachers’ knowledge of ADHD ADHD in Lebanon 


  1. Adams, C. (2007). Girls & ADHD: Are you missing the signs? Instructor, 116, 31–35.Google Scholar
  2. American School Counselor Association. (2012). ASCA national model A framwork for school counseling programs. Retrieved from
  3. Ayyash-Abdo, H., Alamuddin, R., & Mukallid, S. (2010). School counseling in Lebanon: Past, present, and future. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88, 13–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Badeleh, M. T. (2013). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and elementary teachers’ awareness. Journal of Medical Sciences, 13, 829–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bauermeister, J. J., Shrout, P. E., Chávez, L., Rubio-Stipec, M., Ramírez, R., Padilla, L., Anderson, A., García, P., Canino, G. (2007). ADHD and gender: Are risks and sequela of ADHD the same for boys and girls? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 48, 831–839.Google Scholar
  6. Daley, D., & Birchwood, J. (2010). ADHD and academic performance: Why does ADHD impact on academic performance and what can be done to support ADHD children in the classroom?: ADHD and academic performance. Child: Care, Health and Development, 36, 455–464.Google Scholar
  7. Farah, L. G., Fayyad, J. A., Eapen, V., Cassir, Y., Salamoun, M. M., Tabet, C. C., et al. (2009). ADHD in the Arab world a review of epidemiologic studies. Journal of Attention Disorders, 13, 211–222.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Groenewald, C., Emond, A., & Sayal, K. (2009). Recognition and referral of girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Case vignette study. Child: Care, Health and Development, 35, 767–772.Google Scholar
  9. Krowski, K. F. (2009). ADHD: Urban teachersknowledge, beliefs and classroom practice. University of Massachusetts. Theses and Dissertations. Retrieved from
  10. Legato, J. (2011). Effects of teacher factors on expectations of students with ADHD. DePaul University. Theses and Dissertations. Retrieved from
  11. Maniadaki, K., Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., & Kakouros, E. (2003). Trainee nursery teachers’ perceptions of disruptive behaviour disorders; the effect of sex of child on judgments of typicality and severity. Child: Care, Health and Development, 29, 433–440.Google Scholar
  12. Martinussen, R., Tannock, R., & Chaban, P. (2011). Teachers’ reported use of instructional and behavior management practices for students with behavior problems: Relationship to role and level of training in ADHD. Child & Youth Care Forum, 40, 193–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nur, N., & Kavakci, O. (2010). Elementary school teachers’ knowledge and attitudes related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Society for Development in New Net Environment in B&H, 4, 350–355.Google Scholar
  14. Ohan, J. L., & Visser, T. A. (2009). Why is there a gender gap in children presenting for attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder services? Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38, 650–660.Google Scholar
  15. Sarraf, N., Karahmadi, M., Marasy, M. R., & Azhar, S. M. (2011). A comparative study of the effectiveness of nonattendance and workshop education of primary school teachers in their knowledge, attitude and function towards ADHD students in Isfahan in 2010. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 16, 1196–1201.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Sciutto, M. J., Nolfi, C. J., & Bluhm, C. (2004). Effects of child gender and symptom type on referrals for ADHD by elementary school teachers. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12, 247–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Taylor, E. (2011). Antecedents of ADHD: A historical account of diagnostic concepts. Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 3, 69–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hala Mohammed Berri
    • 1
  • Anies Al-Hroub
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EducationAmerican University of BeirutBeirutLebanon

Personalised recommendations