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VNS for the Treatment of Inflammatory Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract

  • Bruno BonazEmail author
  • Valérie Sinniger
  • Sonia Pellissier
  • Didier Clarençon
Chapter

Abstract

The brain and the gut communicate bi-directionally through the autonomic nervous system of which the vagus nerve is a major component. The vagus nerve has a well-documented anti-inflammatory activity through its afferents and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. More recently, an anti-inflammatory role of vagal efferents has also been discovered through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Vagus nerve stimulation, used in the treatment of drug resistant epilepsy and depression, could be an effective tool to treat inflammatory disorders of the gastro-intestinal tract, such as inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, as well as postoperative ileus which are characterized by an autonomic imbalance with a low vagal tone.

Keywords

Autonomic nervous system Brain-gut axis Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway Gastro-intestinal tract Iinflammation Inflammatory bowel diseases Irritable bowel syndrome Postoperative ileus Vagus nerve Vagus nerve stimulation 

Abbreviations

α7nAChR

Alpha7 nicotinic Ach receptors

Ach

Acetylcholine

ANS

Autonomic nervous system

CAP

Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

CD

Crohn’s disease

CRF

Corticotrophin-releasing factor

DMNV

Dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus

FDA

Food and drug administration

HPA axis

Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis

HRV

Heart rate variability

IBD

Inflammatory bowel disease

IBS

Irritable bowel syndrome

IL

Interleukin

LC

Locus coeruleus

LPS

Lipopolysaccharides

NTS

Nucleus tractus solitarius

PB

Parabrachial nucleus

POI

Postoperative ileus

PVH

Paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

UC

Ulcerative colitis

VN

Vagus nerve

VNS

Vagus nerve stimulation

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruno Bonaz
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Valérie Sinniger
    • 3
  • Sonia Pellissier
    • 4
  • Didier Clarençon
    • 2
    • 5
  1. 1.Clinique Universitaire d’Hépato-Gastroentérologie, CHU GrenobleGrenoble Cedex 09France
  2. 2.University Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut des NeurosciencesGrenobleFrance
  3. 3.University Hospital, Grenoble Alpes, Department of HepatogastroenterologyInstitute of NeurosciencesGrenobleFrance
  4. 4.Universite Savoie Mont-Blanc, Laboratoire Interuniversitaire de Pschologie, Personnalite, Cognition, et Changement Social, Grenoble Institute of NeurosciencesChambéryFrance
  5. 5.Institut de Recherche Biomedicale des ArmeesParisFrance

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