Advertisement

Fostering Psychosocial Skills: School-Based Promotion of Resiliency in Children and Adolescents

  • Sandra Prince-Embury
  • Kateryna V. Keefer
  • Donald H. Saklofske
Chapter
Part of the The Springer Series on Human Exceptionality book series (SSHE)

Abstract

This chapter discusses the application of resiliency in school environments. We begin by briefly introducing the constructs of resilience/resiliency as internal and external mechanisms that allow an individual to recover from/overcome adversities. Resilience is described as a non-stigmatizing construct which includes social-emotional intelligence and which is well suited to use in a school environment. Next, the three-factor model of personal resiliency, developed by Prince-Embury, is presented as a working model to simplify the construct into three underlying developmental principles for applications in schools. The three-factor model describes core underlying developmental systems of personal resiliency as sense of mastery, sense of relatedness, and emotional reactivity. The Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents are then presented as a tool for preventive screening in schools that employ the three-factor model. A multitiered model for preventive screening is presented using the RSCA index scores of vulnerability and resource to identify students who are most at risk and drilling down to identify specific areas of relative strength and vulnerability. The second part of this chapter provides specific examples of applications of resiliency and related strength-based constructs in schools at different levels of intervention: school-wide/systemic, classroom, and individual.

Keywords

Resilience Resiliency Three-factor model of personal resiliency Sense of mastery Sense of relatedness Emotional reactivity Vulnerability Resource Application of resiliency interventions 

References

  1. Abry, T., Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Larsen, R. A., & Brewer, A. J. (2013). The influence of fidelity of implementation on teacher-student interaction quality in the context of a randomized controlled trial of the Responsive Classroom approach. Journal of School Psychology, 51, 437–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albright, M. I., & Weissberg, R. P. (2010). School-family partnerships to promote social and emotional learning. In S. L. Christenson & A. L. Reschley (Eds.), The handbook of school-family partnerships for promoting student competence (pp. 246–265). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Alvord, M. K., Zucker, B., & Grados, J. J. (2011). Resilience builder program: Enhancing social competence and self-regulation. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bar-On, R. (2006). The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence. Psicothema, 18, 13–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Block, J. H., & Block, J. (1980). The role of ego-control and ego-resiliency in the origination of behavior. In W. A. Collings (Ed.), The Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology (Vol. 13, pp. 39–101). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  8. Block, J. (2002). Personality as an affect processing system. Mahwah, N.J. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  9. British Columbia Ministry of Education. (2013). Defining cross-curricular competencies: Transforming curriculum and assessment. Victoria: British Columbia Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  10. Brock, L. L., Nishida, K. K., Chiong, C., Grimm, K. J., & Rimm-Kaurman, S. E. (2008). Children’s perceptions of the social environment and social and academic performance: A longitudinal analysis of the Responsive Classroom approach. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 129–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brooks, R., & Brooks, S. (2014). Creating resilient mindsets in children and adolescents: A strength-based approach for clinical and nonclinical populations. In S. Prince-Embury & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), Resilience interventions for youth in diverse populations (pp. 59–82). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brooks, R., Brooks, S., & Goldstein, S. (2012). The power of mindsets: Nurturing engagement, motivation, and resilience in students. In S. Christenson, A. L. Resschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 541–562). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brooks, R., & Goldstein, S. (2001). Raising resilient children. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  14. Brooks, R., & Goldstein, S. (2008). The mindset of teachers capable of fostering resilience in students. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 23(1), 114–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cicchetti, D., Ganiban, J., & Barnett, D. (1991). Contributions from the study of high-risk populations to understanding the development of emotion regulation. In J. Garber & K. Dodge (Eds.), The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation (pp. 15–48). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cicchetti, D., & Tucker, D. (1994). Development and self-regulatory structures of the mind. Development and Psychopathology, 6(4), 533–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Collaborative for Social and Emotional Learning. (2013). 2013 CASEL guide: Effective social and emotional learning programs – Preschool and elementary school edition. Chicago, IL: Collaborative for Social and Emotional Learning.Google Scholar
  19. Curby, T. W., Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., & Abry, T. (2013). Do emotional support and classroom organization earlier in the year set the stage for higher quality instruction? Journal of School Psychology, 51, 557–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. de Boo, G. M., & Prins, P. J. M. (2007). Social incompetence in children with ADHD: Possible moderators and mediators in social-skills training. Clinical Psychology Review, 27(1), 78–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Deci, E. L., Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). Motivation and education: The self-determination perspective. Educational Psychologist, 26, 325–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Denton, P. (2014). The power of our words: Teacher language that helps children learn (2nd ed.). Turners Falls, MA: Northeast Foundation for Children.Google Scholar
  23. Devaney, E., O’Brien, M. U., Resnik, H., Keister, S., & Weissberg, P. (2006). Sustainable schoolwide social and emotional learning (SEL): Implementation guide and toolkit. Chicago, IL: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning.Google Scholar
  24. Doll, B., Brehm, K., & Zucker, S. (2014). Resilient classrooms: Creating healthy environments for learning (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  25. Doll, B., Spies, R. A., Champion, A., Guerrero, C., Dooley, K., & Turner, A. (2010). The ClassMaps Survey: A measure of students’ perceptions of classroom resilience. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 28, 338–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Doll, B., Spies, R. A., LeClair, C., Kurien, S., & Foley, B. (2010). Student perceptions of classroom learning environments: Development of the ClassMaps Survey. School Psychology Review, 39, 203–218.Google Scholar
  27. Doll, B., Zucker, S., & Brehm, K. (2004). Resilient classrooms: Creating healthier environments for learning. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  28. Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82, 405–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dusenbury, L., Zadrazil, J., Mart, A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2011). State learning standards to advance social and emotional learning: The state scan of social and emotional learning standards, preschool through high school. Chicago, IL: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning.Google Scholar
  30. Eisenberg, N., Champion, C., & Ma, Y. (2004). Emotion-related regulation: An emerging construct. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50, 236–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Elias, M. J., Parker, S. R., & Rosenblatt, J. L. (2005). Building educational opportunity. In R. B. Brooks & S. Goldstein (Eds.), Handbook of resilience in children (pp. 315–336). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Embry, D. D., & Biglan, A. (2008). Evidence-based kernels: Fundamental units of behavioral influence. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 11, 75–113.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Frome, P. M., & Eccles, J. S. (1998). Parents’ influence on children’s achievement-related perceptions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 435–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Garmezy, N. (1971). Vulnerability research and the issue of primary prevention. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 41, 101–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Garmezy, N. (1985). Stress-resistant children: The search for protective factors. In J. E. Stevenson (Ed.), Recent research in developmental psychopathology (Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Book Suppl. 4, pp. 213–233). Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  36. Garmezy, N. (1991). Resilience and vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes associated with poverty. American Behavioral Scientist, 34, 416–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Garmezy, N., Masten, A. S., & Tellegen, A. (1984). The study of stress and competence in children: A building block for developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 97–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Goldstein, S., & Brooks, R. (2007). Understanding and managing classroom behavior: Creating resilient, sustainable classrooms. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  39. Goldstein, S., Brooks, R., & DeVries, M. (2013). Translating resilience theory for application with children and adolescents by parents, teachers, and mental health professionals. In S. Prince-Embury & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), Resilience in children, adolescents, and adults: Translating research into practice (pp. 73–90). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Greenberg, M. T., Weissberg, R. P., O’Brien, M. U., Zins, J. E., Fredericks, L., Resnik, H., et al. (2003). Enhancing school-based prevention and youth development through coordinated social, emotional, and academic learning. American Psychologist, 58, 466–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gresham, F. M., & Elliot, S. N. (1990). Social skills rating system manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  42. Joiner, T. E., Jr., Katz, J., & Lew, A. S. (1997). Self-verification and depression among youth psychiatric inpatients. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 608–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kaplan, H. B. (1999). Toward an understanding of resilience: A critical review of definitions and models. In M. D. Glantz & J. L. Johnson (Eds.), Resilience and development: Positive life adaptations (pp. 17–83). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Google Scholar
  44. Kaplan, H. B. (2005). Understanding the concept of resilience. In S. Goldstein & R. Brooks (Eds.), Handbook of resilience in children (pp. 39–47). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kriete, R. (2002). The morning meeting book. Turners Falls, MA: Northeast Foundation for Children.Google Scholar
  46. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  47. Luthar, S. S. (1991). Vulnerability and resilience: A study of high-risk adolescents. Child Development, 62, 600–616.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Luthar, S. S. (2006). Resilience in development: A synthesis of research across five decades. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Risk, disorder, and adaptation (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 739–795). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  49. Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D. C., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71, 543–562.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Luthar, S. S., & Zelazo, L. B. (2003). Research on resilience: An integrative review. In S. S. Luthar (Ed.), Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities (pp. 510–549). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Luthar, S. S., & Zigler, E. (1991). Vulnerability and competence: A review of the research on resilience in childhood. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 6–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Luthar, S. S., & Zigler, E. (1992). Intelligence and social competence among high-risk adolescents. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 287–299.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Malecki, C. K., & Elliott, S. N. (2002). Children’s social behaviors as predictors of academia achievement: A longitudinal analysis. School Psychology Quarterly, 17, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mallin, B., Walker, J. R., & Levin, B. (2013). Mental health promotion in the schools: Supporting resilience in children and youth. In S. Prince-Embury & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), Resilience in children, adolescents, and adults: Translating research into practice (pp. 91–112). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Marsh, H. W. (2007). Self-concept theory, measurement and research into practice: The role of self concept in educational psychology. Leicester: British Psychological Society.Google Scholar
  56. Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56, 227–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Masten, A. S., & Coatsworth, J. D. (1998). The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments: Lessons from research on successful children. American Psychologist, 53, 205–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Masten, A. S., & Curtis, W. J. (2000). Integrating competence and psychopathology: Pathways toward a comprehensive science of adaptation in development [Special issue]. Development & Psychopathology, 12, 529–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Masten, A. S., & Obradovic, J. (2006). Competence and resilience in development. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 13–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Masten, A. S., & Powell, J. L. (2003). A resilience framework for research, policy, and practice. In S. S. Luthar (Ed.), Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities (pp. 1–25). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Masten, A. S., Roisman, G. I., Long, J. D., Burt, K. B., Obradovic, J., Riley, J. R., et al. (2005). Developmental cascades: Linking academic achievement and externalizing and internalizing symptoms over 20 years. Developmental Psychology, 41, 733–746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McAuliffe, M. D., Hubbard, J. A., & Romano, L. J. (2009). The role of teacher cognition and behavior in children’s peer relations. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 665–677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McConnell, A. R. (2011). The multiple self-aspects framework: Self-concept representation and its implications. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15, 3–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McDermott, P. A., Mordell, M., & Stoltzfus, J. (2001). The organization of student performance in American schools: Discipline, motivation, verbal learning, and nonverbal learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 65–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Merrell, K. W., & Gueldner, B. A. (2010). Social and emotional learning in the classroom: Promoting mental health and academic success. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  66. Möller, J. (2005). Paradoxical effects of praise and criticism: Social, dimensional and temporal comparisons. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 275–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Murphy, P. S. (2002). The effect of classroom meetings on the reduction of recess problems: A single case design. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Denver, Denver, CO.Google Scholar
  68. Nickolite, A., & Doll, B. (2008). Resilience applied in school: Strengthening classroom environments for learning. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 23, 94–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Northeast Foundation for Children (NEFC). (1997). Guidelines for the responsive classroom. Greenfield, MA: Northeast Foundation for Children.Google Scholar
  70. Ontario Ministry of Education. (2013). Ontario leadership strategy: Principal/vice-principal performance appraisal – technical requirements manual. Toronto, ON: Ontario Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  71. Patrikakou, E. N., Weissberg, R. P., Redding, S., & Walberg, H. J. (Eds.). (2005). School-family partnerships for children’s success. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  72. Petrides, K. V. (2011). Ability and trait emotional intelligence. In T. Chamorro-Premuzic, S. von Stumm, & A. Furnham (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of individual differences (pp. 656–678). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  73. Prince-Embury, S. (2006) The Resiliency Scales for Adolescents, Harcourt Assessment. San Antonio, Tx.Google Scholar
  74. Prince-Embury, S. (2007). Resiliency scales for children and adolescents: Profiles of personal strengths. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessments.Google Scholar
  75. Prince-Embury, S. (2008). Resiliency scales for children and adolescents, psychological symptoms and clinical status of adolescents. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 23, 41–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Prince-Embury, S. (2010). Assessment for integrated screening and prevention using the resiliency scales for children and adolescents. In B. Doll, W. Pfohl, & J. Yoon (Eds.), Handbook of youth prevention science (pp. 141–162). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  77. Prince-Embury, S. (2011). Assessing personal resiliency in the schools using the resiliency scales for children and adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 48(7), 672–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Prince-Embury, S. (2013a). Translating resilience theory for assessment and application with children, adolescents, and adults: Conceptual issues. In S. Prince-Embury & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), Resilience in children, adolescents, and adults: Translating research into practice (pp. 9–16). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Prince-Embury, S. (2013b). Resiliency scales for children and adolescents: Theory, research, and clinical application. In S. Prince-Embury & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), Resilience in children, adolescents, and adults: Translating research into practice (pp. 19–44). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Prince-Embury, S. (2014). Three factor model of personal resiliency and related interventions. In S. Prince-Embury & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), Resilience interventions for youth in diverse populations (pp. 25–57). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Prince-Embury, S., & Courville, T. (2008a). Comparison of one, two and three factor models of personal resilience using the resiliency scales for children and adolescents. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 23, 11–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Prince-Embury, S., & Courville, T. (2008b). Measurement invariance of the resiliency scales for children and adolescents with respect to sex and age cohorts. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 23, 26–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Prince-Embury, S., & Saklofske, D. H. (2013). Translating resilience theory for application: Introduction. In S. Prince-Embury & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), Resilience in children, adolescents, and adults: Translating research into practice (pp. 3–7). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Prince-Embury, S., & Saklofske, D. H. (2014). Building a science of resilience intervention for youth. In S. Prince-Embury & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), Resilience interventions for youth in diverse populations (pp. 3–12). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., & Chiu, Y. I. (2007). Promoting social and academic competence in the classroom: An intervention study examining the contribution of the Responsive Classroom approach. Psychology in the Schools, 44, 397–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Fan, X., Chiu, Y. I., & You, W. (2007). The contribution of the Responsive Classroom approach on children’s academic achievement: Results of a three-year longitudinal study. Journal of School Psychology, 45, 401–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., & Sawyer, B. E. (2004). Primary grade teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes toward teaching, and discipline and teaching practice priorities in relation to the Responsive Classroom approach. The Elementary School Journal, 104, 321–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rothbart, M. K., & Derryberry, D. (1981). Development of individual differences in temperament. In M. E. Lamb & A. L. Brown (Eds.), Advances in developmental psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 37–86). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  89. Rutter, M. (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 316–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rutter, M. (1993). Resilience: Some conceptual considerations. Journal of Adolescent Health, 14, 626–631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rutter, M. (2010). Child and adolescent psychiatry: Past scientific achievement and challenges for the future. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 19, 689–703. doi: 10.1007/s00787-010-0111-y.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sapienza, J. K., & Masten, A. S. (2011). Understanding and promoting resilience in children and youth. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 24, 267–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schwean, V. L., & Rodger, S. (2013). Children first: It’s time to change! Mental health promotion, prevention, & treatment informed by public health and resiliency approaches. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 28, 136–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Seligman, M. E. P. (1990). Learned optimism: How to change your minds and life. New York: Pocket Books.Google Scholar
  95. Shure, M. B., & Aberson, B. (2013). Enhancing the process of resilience through effective thinking. In S. Goldstein & R. Brooks (Eds.), Handbook of resilience in children (2nd ed., pp. 459–480). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  96. Siegel, D. J. (1999). The developing mind: How relationships and the brain interact to shape who we are. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  97. Song, S. Y., Doll, B., & Marth, K. (2013). Classroom resilience: Practical assessment for intervention. In S. Prince-Embury & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), Resilience in children, adolescents, and adults: Translating research into practice (pp. 61–72). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Song, S. Y., Sikorski, J., Doll, B., & Sikorski, M. (2014). Enhancing classroom resilience with ClassMaps consultation. In S. Prince-Embury & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), Resilience interventions for youth in diverse populations (pp. 203–215). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Swann, W. B. (1997). The trouble with change: Self-verification and allegiance to the self. Psychological Science, 8, 177–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Thompson, R. A. (1990). Emotion and self-regulation. In R. Dienstbier (Series Ed.) & R. A. Thompson (Vol. Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation: Socioemotional development (pp. 367–467). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  101. Usher, E. L., & Pajares, F. (2008). Sources of self-efficacy in school: Critical review of the literature and future directions. Review of Educational Research, 78, 751–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wang, M. (1994). Educational resilience in inner-city America: Challenges and prospects. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  103. Wanless, S. B., Patton, C. S., Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., & Deutsch, N. L. (2013). Setting-level influences on implementation of the Responsive Classroom approach. Prevention Science, 14, 40–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wentzel, K. R., & Watkins, D. E. (2002). Peer relationships and collaborative learning as contexts for academic enablers. School Psychology Review, 31, 366–377.Google Scholar
  105. Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1982). Vulnerable but invincible: A longitudinal study of resilient children and youth. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  106. White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66, 297–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wiley, A. L., Tankersley, M., & Simms, A. (2012). Teachers’ causal attributions for student problem behavior: Implications for school-based behavioral interventions and research. In B. G. Cook, M. Tankersley, & T. J. Landrum (Eds.), Classroom behavior, contexts, and interventions (pp. 279–300). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  108. Wyman, P. A., Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., & Kerley, J. H. (1993). The role of children’s future expectations in self-system functioning and adjustment to life stress: A prospective study of urban at-risk children (Special issue). Development and Psychopathology, 5, 649–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zins, J. E., Bloodworth, M. R., Weissberg, R. P., & Walberg, H. J. (2004). The scientific base linking social and emotional learning to school success. In J. E. Zins, R. P. Weissberg, M. C. Wang, & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), Building academic success on social and emotional learning: What does the research say? (pp. 3–22). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandra Prince-Embury
    • 1
  • Kateryna V. Keefer
    • 2
  • Donald H. Saklofske
    • 2
  1. 1.The Resiliency Institute of Allenhurst, LLC.West AllenhurstUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations