Skip to main content

Peritoneal Dissemination of Gastrointestinal Tumors

Abstract

The term peritoneal surface malignancy (PSM) applies to a wide range of epithelial or, less frequently, mesenchymal neoplasms that originate from the primitive structure of the peritoneum (primary PSM), or spread over the peritoneum as metastases from tumors of intra-abdominal, retroperitoneal, or extra-abdominal organs (secondary PSM). Primary PSMs, including peritoneal mesothelioma and primary peritoneal carcinoma, are rare. Peritoneal dissemination of colorectal, gastric, and ovarian cancers, known as peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC), represents the most frequent types of secondary PSM (Treatment of peritoneal surface malignancies, Milan, 2015). As the focus of this monograph, three secondary PSM entities, including colorectal and gastric PCs and the pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) syndrome, are revisited in this chapter. Hematogenous and lymphatic metastases of gastrointestinal cancers follow a well-defined pattern of distribution, with the regional lymph nodes and the liver being the initial sites for cancer spread. Peritoneal dissemination is a third mechanism that can result from serosal invasion or visceral perforation by tumor, or may develop as an iatrogenic complication following diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. Distinctions in gene expression profiles and the involvement of certain molecular pathways are believed to determine the metastatic site of gastrointestinal cancer (peritoneum versus liver) (Varghese et al., Annals of Surgical Oncology 14: 3460–3471, 2007). The past assumption that peritoneal dissemination is a random process has been challenged by meticulous observations that have identified different patterns and mechanisms governing the dissemination of tumor cells. In this regard, anatomic site of the primary tumor, histologic type of tumor, changes in intra-abdominal pressure, gravity, peritoneal surface motion (peristalsis), peritoneal fluid resorption, viscosity and volume of fluid within the abdomen, peritoneal adhesions, and fibrin entrapment are among factors that affect the pattern of spread (Carmignani et al., Cancer and Metastasis Reviews 22: 465–472, 2003). Also classified as a secondary PSM with an appendiceal primary origin, PMP represents the prototype for the peritoneal neoplasms associated with mucin secretion and accumulation. PSM is usually associated with poor prognosis regardless of the origin of the primary tumor. By virtue of the recent advances, however, the treatment paradigm has shifted from palliative to curative (Sugarbaker, Langenbeck’s Archives of Surgery 384: 576–587, 1999a; Esquivel, Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America 21: xv–xviii, 2012; Mohamed et al., Current Oncology 18: e84–e96, 2011). The classification of PSM is outlined in Table 1.1.

Keywords

  • Peritoneal surface malignancy
  • Peritoneal carcinomatosis
  • Peritoneal dissemination
  • Gastrointestinal cancer
  • Gastric cancer
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Pseudomyxoma peritonei
  • PMP

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-28570-2_1
  • Chapter length: 41 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   139.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-28570-2
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   179.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   179.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

References

  • Abdu, B., Hobgood, D., Stallings, S., & Depasquale, S. (2009). Incidental finding of pseudomyxoma peritonei at primary cesarean section. American Journal of Perinatology, 26, 633–635.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • AIHW. (2015a). Australian Cancer Incidence and Mortality (ACIM) books: All cancers combined [Online]. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). Retrieved January 12, 2015, from http://www.aihw.gov.au/acim-books, http://www.aihw.gov.au/acim-books

  • AIHW. (2015b). Australian Cancer Incidence and Mortality (ACIM) books: Bowel cancer [Online]. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). Retrieved January 12, 2015, from http://www.aihw.gov.au/acim-books, http://www.aihw.gov.au/acim-books

  • AIHW. (2015c). Australian Cancer Incidence and Mortality (ACIM) books: Stomach cancer [Online]. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). Retrieved January 12, 2015, from http://www.aihw.gov.au/acim-books, http://www.aihw.gov.au/acim-books

  • Aiko, T., & Sasako, M. (1998). The new Japanese classification of gastric carcinoma: Points to be revised. Gastric Cancer, 1, 25–30.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ajani, J. A., Ota, D. M., Jessup, J. M., Ames, F. C., McBride, C., Boddie, A., et al. (1991). Resectable gastric carcinoma. An evaluation of preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy. Cancer, 68, 1501–1506.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Alexander-Sefre, F., Chandrakumaran, K., Banerjee, S., Sexton, R., Thomas, J. M., & Moran, B. (2005). Elevated tumour markers prior to complete tumour removal in patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei predict early recurrence. Colorectal Disease, 7, 382–386.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Amini, A., Masoumi Moghaddam, S., Ehteda, A., & Morris, D. L. (2013b). Pseudomyxoma peritonei: Uninvited goblet cells, ectopic MUC2. Journal of Glycobiology, S1, 002.

    Google Scholar 

  • Amini, A., Masoumi-Moghaddam, S., Ehteda, A., & Morris, D. L. (2014b). Secreted mucins in pseudomyxoma peritonei: Pathophysiological significance and potential therapeutic prospects. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, 9, 71.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Amini, A., Masoumi-Moghaddam, S., & Morris, D. L. (2015c). Pseudomyxoma peritonei: Current chemotherapy and the need for mucin-directed strategies. Expert Opinion on Orphan Drugs, 3, 183–193.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Andreasson, H., Graf, W., Nygren, P., Glimelius, B., & Mahteme, H. (2012). Outcome differences between debulking surgery and cytoreductive surgery in patients with Pseudomyxoma peritonei. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 38, 962–968.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Archer, A. G., Sugarbaker, P. H., & Jelinek, J. S. (1996). Radiology of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Cancer Treatment and Research, 82, 263–288.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Arjona-Sanchez, A., Munoz-Casares, F. C., Casado-Adam, A., Sanchez-Hidalgo, J. M., Ayllon Teran, M. D., Orti-Rodriguez, R., et al. (2013). Outcome of patients with aggressive pseudomyxoma peritonei treated by cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. World Journal of Surgery, 37, 1263–1270.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Arjona-Sanchez, A., Munoz-Casares, F. C., Rufian-Pena, S., Diaz-Nieto, R., Casado-Adam, A., Rubio-Perez, M. J., et al. (2011). Pseudomyxoma peritonei treated by cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: Results from a single centre. Clinical and Translational Oncology, 13, 261–267.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Austin, F., Mavanur, A., Sathaiah, M., Steel, J., Lenzner, D., Ramalingam, L., et al. (2012). Aggressive management of peritoneal carcinomatosis from mucinous appendiceal neoplasms. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 19, 1386–1393.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Bando, E., Yonemura, Y., Takeshita, Y., Taniguchi, K., Yasui, T., Yoshimitsu, Y., et al. (1999). Intraoperative lavage for cytological examination in 1,297 patients with gastric carcinoma. American Journal of Surgery, 178, 256–262.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baratti, D., Kusamura, S., Martinetti, A., Seregni, E., Laterza, B., Oliva, D. G., et al. (2007). Prognostic value of circulating tumor markers in patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei treated with cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 14, 2300–2308.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baratti, D., Kusamura, S., Nonaka, D., Cabras, A. D., Laterza, B., & Deraco, M. (2009). Pseudomyxoma peritonei: Biological features are the dominant prognostic determinants after complete cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Annals of Surgery, 249, 243–249.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baskaranathan, S., Philips, J., Mccredden, P., & Solomon, M. J. (2004). Free colorectal cancer cells on the peritoneal surface: Correlation with pathologic variables and survival. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, 47, 2076–2079.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beaujard, A. C., Glehen, O., Caillot, J. L., Francois, Y., Bienvenu, J., Panteix, G., et al. (2000). Intraperitoneal chemohyperthermia with mitomycin C for digestive tract cancer patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Cancer, 88, 2512–2519.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ben-Hur, H., Schachter, M., Mashiah, A., Lifschitz-Mercer, B., & Pfeffermann, R. (1996). Recurrent mucinous adenocarcinoma of the ovary presenting as an inguino-labial hernia. European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology, 17, 299–302.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Berger, Y., Zbar, A. P., Lebedyev, A., Levi, Y., Nevler, A., Aderka, D., et al. (2014). Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal and appendiceal origin. Harefuah, 153, 315–319, 368.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bibi, R., Pranesh, N., Saunders, M. P., Wilson, M. S., O’Dwyer, S. T., Stern, P. L., et al. (2006). A specific cadherin phenotype may characterise the disseminating yet non-metastatic behaviour of pseudomyxoma peritonei. British Journal of Cancer, 95, 1258–1264.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Bijelic, L., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (2012). The role of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with advanced gastric cancer. Annali Italiani di Chirurgia, 83, 224–231.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bijelic, L., Yan, T. D., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (2008). Treatment failure following complete cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal dissemination from colorectal or appendiceal mucinous neoplasms. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 98, 295–299.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Boku, T., Nakane, Y., Minoura, T., Takada, H., Yamamura, M., Hioki, K., et al. (1990). Prognostic significance of serosal invasion and free intraperitoneal cancer cells in gastric cancer. British Journal of Surgery, 77, 436–439.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bozzetti, F., Yu, W., Baratti, D., Kusamura, S., & Deraco, M. (2008). Locoregional treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 98, 273–276.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Braam, H. J., van Oudheusden, T. R., de Hingh, I. H., Nienhuijs, S. W., Boerma, D., Wiezer, M. J., et al. (2014). Patterns of recurrence following complete cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 109, 841–847.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bradley, R. F., Stewart, J. H. T., Russell, G. B., Levine, E. A., & Geisinger, K. R. (2006). Pseudomyxoma peritonei of appendiceal origin: A clinicopathologic analysis of 101 patients uniformly treated at a single institution, with literature review. American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 30, 551–559.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bretcha-Boix, P., Farre-Alegre, J., Sureda, M., Dussan, C., Perez Ruixo, J. J., & Brugarolas Masllorens, A. (2010). Cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of colonic origin: Outcomes after 7 years’ experience of a new centre for peritoneal surface malignancies. Clinical and Translational Oncology, 12, 437–442.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Buell-Gutbrod, R., & Gwin, K. (2013a). Pathologic diagnosis, origin, and natural history of pseudomyxoma peritonei. American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book, 33, 221–225.

    Google Scholar 

  • Buy, J. N., Malbec, L., Ghossain, M. A., Guinet, C., & Ecoiffier, J. (1989). Magnetic resonance imaging of pseudomyxoma peritonei. European Journal of Radiology, 9, 115–118.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cakmak, A., Karakayali, F., Bayar, S., Unal, E., Akyol, C., & Kocaoglu, H. (2009). Pseudomyxoma retroperitonei presenting with a skin fistula. Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology, 20, 79–80.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell, P., Dawson, S., Wali, J., Kenny, B., & Whiteside, M. C. (2009). Pseudomyxoma peritonei presenting as inguinal hernia. Ulster Medical Journal, 78, 189–190.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Canbay, E., Yonemura, Y., Brucher, B., Baik, S. H., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (2014). Intraperitoneal chemotherapy and its evolving role in management of gastric cancer with peritoneal metastases. Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, 26, 1–3.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Carmignani, C. P., Hampton, R., Sugarbaker, C. E., Chang, D., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (2004a). Utility of CEA and CA 19-9 tumor markers in diagnosis and prognostic assessment of mucinous epithelial cancers of the appendix. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 87, 162–166.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Carmignani, C. P., Ortega-Perez, G., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (2004b). The management of synchronous peritoneal carcinomatosis and hematogenous metastasis from colorectal cancer. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 30, 391–398.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Carmignani, C. P., Sugarbaker, T. A., Bromley, C. M., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (2003). Intraperitoneal cancer dissemination: Mechanisms of the patterns of spread. Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, 22, 465–472.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cashin, P. H., Graf, W., Nygren, P., & Mahteme, H. (2012). Cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis: Prognosis and treatment of recurrences in a cohort study. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 38, 509–515.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cavaliere, F., de Simone, M., Virzi, S., Deraco, M., Rossi, C. R., Garofalo, A., et al. (2011). Prognostic factors and oncologic outcome in 146 patients with colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis treated with cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: Italian multicenter study S.I.T.I.L.O. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 37, 148–154.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cavaliere, F., Perri, P., di Filippo, F., Giannarelli, D., Botti, C., Cosimelli, M., et al. (2000). Treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis with intent to cure. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 74, 41–44.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cavaliere, F., Valle, M., de Simone, M., Deraco, M., Rossi, C. R., di Filippo, F., et al. (2006). 120 peritoneal carcinomatoses from colorectal cancer treated with peritonectomy and intra-abdominal chemohyperthermia: A S.I.T.I.L.O. multicentric study. In Vivo, 20, 747–750.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ceelen, W. P., & Bracke, M. E. (2009). Peritoneal minimal residual disease in colorectal cancer: Mechanisms, prevention, and treatment. Lancet Oncology, 10, 72–79.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ceelen, W. P., Peeters, M., Houtmeyers, P., Breusegem, C., de Somer, F., & Pattyn, P. (2008). Safety and efficacy of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion with high-dose oxaliplatin in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 15, 535–541.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chen, J. S., Hsieh, P. S., Chiang, J. M., Yeh, C. Y., Tsai, W. S., Tang, R., et al. (2010). Clinical outcome of signet ring cell carcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colon. Chang Gung Medical Journal, 33, 51–57.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cheong, J. H., Shen, J. Y., Song, C. S., Hyung, W. J., Shen, J. G., Choi, S. H., et al. (2007). Early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy following cytoreductive surgery in patients with very advanced gastric cancer. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 14, 61–68.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chu, D. Z., Lang, N. P., Thompson, C., Osteen, P. K., & Westbrook, K. C. (1989). Peritoneal carcinomatosis in nongynecologic malignancy. A prospective study of prognostic factors. Cancer, 63, 364–367.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chua, T. C., Al-Alem, I., Saxena, A., Liauw, W., & Morris, D. L. (2011a). Surgical cytoreduction and survival in appendiceal cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis: An evaluation of 46 consecutive patients. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 18, 1540–1546.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chua, T. C., Al-Zahrani, A., Saxena, A., Glenn, D., Liauw, W., Zhao, J., et al. (2011b). Determining the association between preoperative computed tomography findings and postoperative outcomes after cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for pseudomyxoma peritonei. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 18, 1582–1589.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chua, T. C., Al-Zahrani, A., Saxena, A., Liauw, W., Zhao, J., & Morris, D. L. (2010a). Secondary cytoreduction and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy after initial debulking of pseudomyxoma peritonei: A study of timing and the impact of malignant dedifferentiation. Journal of the American College of Surgery, 211, 526–535.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chua, T. C., Baker, B., Yan, T. D., Zhao, J., & Morris, D. L. (2010b). Palliative effects of an incomplete cytoreduction combined with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. American Journal of Clinical Oncology, 33, 568–571.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chua, T. C., Chong, C. H., Liauw, W., Zhao, J., & Morris, D. L. (2012a). Inflammatory markers in blood and serum tumor markers predict survival in patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasms undergoing surgical cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Annals of Surgery, 256, 342–349.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chua, T. C., Liauw, W., & Morris, D. L. (2009a). The St George Hospital Peritoneal Surface Malignancy Program—Where are we now? ANZ Journal of Surgery, 79, 416–418.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chua, T. C., Liauw, W., & Morris, D. L. (2012b). Early recurrence of pseudomyxoma peritonei following treatment failure of cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy is indicative of a poor survival outcome. International Journal of Colorectal Disease, 27, 381–389.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chua, T. C., Liauw, W., Saxena, A., Al-Mohaimeed, K., Fransi, S., Zhao, J., et al. (2011c). Evolution of locoregional treatment for peritoneal carcinomatosis: Single-center experience of 308 procedures of cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. American Journal of Surgery, 201, 149–156.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chua, T. C., Liauw, W., Zhao, J., & Morris, D. L. (2011d). Upfront compared to delayed cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for pseudomyxoma peritonei is associated with considerably lower perioperative morbidity and recurrence rate. Annals of Surgery, 253, 769–773.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chua, T. C., Martin, S., Saxena, A., Liauw, W., Yan, T. D., Zhao, J., et al. (2010c). Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (peritonectomy) at the St George Hospital peritoneal surface malignancy program. Annals of Surgery, 251, 323–329.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chua, T. C., Moran, B. J., Sugarbaker, P. H., Levine, E. A., Glehen, O., Gilly, F. N., et al. (2012c). Early- and long-term outcome data of patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei from appendiceal origin treated by a strategy of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 30, 2449–2456.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chua, T. C., Morris, D. L., Saxena, A., Esquivel, J., Liauw, W., Doerfer, J., et al. (2011e). Influence of modern systemic therapies as adjunct to cytoreduction and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for patients with colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis: A multicenter study. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 18, 1560–1567.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chua, T. C., Pelz, J. O., & Morris, D. L. (2012d). Surgery for colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 47, 277–285.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chua, T. C., Yan, T. D., Smigielski, M. E., Zhu, K. J., Ng, K. M., Zhao, J., et al. (2009b). Long-term survival in patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei treated with cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy: 10 years of experience from a single institution. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 16, 1903–1911.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chua, T. C., Yan, T. D., Zhao, J., & Morris, D. L. (2009c). Peritoneal carcinomatosis and liver metastases from colorectal cancer treated with cytoreductive surgery perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy and liver resection. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 35, 1299–1305.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Clement, P. B., Granai, C. O., Young, R. H., & Scully, R. E. (1994). Endometriosis with myxoid change. A case simulating pseudomyxoma peritonei. American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 18, 849–853.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Coccolini, F., Cotte, E., Glehen, O., Lotti, M., Poiasina, E., Catena, F., et al. (2014). Intraperitoneal chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer. Meta-analysis of randomized trials. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 40, 12–26.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Coccolini, F., Gheza, F., Lotti, M., Virzi, S., Iusco, D., Ghermandi, C., et al. (2013). Peritoneal carcinomatosis. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 19, 6979–6994.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Cunningham, D., Allum, W. H., Stenning, S. P., Thompson, J. N., van de Velde, C. J., Nicolson, M., et al. (2006). Perioperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 355, 11–20.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • da Silva, R. G., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (2006). Analysis of prognostic factors in seventy patients having a complete cytoreduction plus perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer. Journal of the American College of Surgery, 203, 878–886.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dayal, S., Taflampas, P., Riss, S., Chandrakumaran, K., Cecil, T. D., Mohamed, F., et al. (2013). Complete cytoreduction for pseudomyxoma peritonei is optimal but maximal tumor debulking may be beneficial in patients in whom complete tumor removal cannot be achieved. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, 56, 1366–1372.

    Google Scholar 

  • de Cuba, E. M., Kwakman, R., Knol, D. L., Bonjer, H. J., Meijer, G. A., & te Velde, E. A. (2013). Cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC for peritoneal metastases combined with curative treatment of colorectal liver metastases: Systematic review of all literature and meta-analysis of observational studies. Cancer Treatment Reviews, 39, 321–327.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Deraco, M., Baratti, D., Inglese, M. G., Allaria, B., Andreola, S., Gavazzi, C., et al. (2004). Peritonectomy and intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion (IPHP): A strategy that has confirmed its efficacy in patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 11, 393–398.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Deraco, M., Elias, D., Glehen, O., Helm, C. W., Sugarbaker, P. H., & Verwaal, V. J. (2011a). Peritoneal surface malignancy. In V. T. Devita, S. Hellman, & S. A. Rosenberg (Eds.), DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg’s Cancer: Principles & practice of oncology (9th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

    Google Scholar 

  • Desantis, M., Bernard, J. L., Casanova, V., Cegarra-Escolano, M., Benizri, E., Rahili, A. M., et al. (2015). Morbidity, mortality, and oncological outcomes of 401 consecutive cytoreductive procedures with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Langenbeck’s Archives of Surgery, 400(1), 37–48.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • di Giorgio, A. (2015). Peritoneal surface malignancies. In A. di Giorgio & E. Pinto (Eds.), Treatment of peritoneal surface malignancies. Milan: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dittmar, Y., Schule, S., Koch, A., Rauchfuss, F., Scheuerlein, H., & Settmacher, U. (2015). Predictive factors for survival and recurrence rate in patients with node-negative gastric cancer—A European single-centre experience. Langenbeck’s Archives of Surgery, 400, 27–35.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Edwards, D. P., & Scott, H. J. (1998). The use of laparoscopy in a case of appendiceal cystadenoma presenting as pseudomyxoma peritonei in an inguinal hernial sac. Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, 43, 112–113.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Elias, D., Blot, F., el Otmany, A., Antoun, S., Lasser, P., Boige, V., et al. (2001). Curative treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis arising from colorectal cancer by complete resection and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Cancer, 92, 71–76.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Elias, D., Gilly, F., Boutitie, F., Quenet, F., Bereder, J. M., Mansvelt, B., et al. (2010a). Peritoneal colorectal carcinomatosis treated with surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy: Retrospective analysis of 523 patients from a multicentric French study. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28, 63–68.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Elias, D., Gilly, F., Quenet, F., Bereder, J. M., Sideris, L., Mansvelt, B., et al. (2010b). Pseudomyxoma peritonei: A French multicentric study of 301 patients treated with cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 36, 456–462.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Elias, D., Glehen, O., Pocard, M., Quenet, F., Goere, D., Arvieux, C., et al. (2010c). A comparative study of complete cytoreductive surgery plus intraperitoneal chemotherapy to treat peritoneal dissemination from colon, rectum, small bowel, and nonpseudomyxoma appendix. Annals of Surgery, 251, 896–901.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Elias, D., Lefevre, J. H., Chevalier, J., Brouquet, A., Marchal, F., Classe, J. M., et al. (2009). Complete cytoreductive surgery plus intraperitoneal chemohyperthermia with oxaliplatin for peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 27, 681–685.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Enck, R. E. (2002). Malignant ascites. The American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care, 19, 7–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Esquivel, J., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (2000). Clinical presentation of the Pseudomyxoma peritonei syndrome. British Journal of Surgery, 87, 1414–1418.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Esquivel, J., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (2001). Pseudomyxoma peritonei in a hernia sac: Analysis of 20 patients in whom mucoid fluid was found during a hernia repair. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 27, 54–58.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fairise, A., Barbary, C., Derelle, A., Tissier, S., Granger, P., Marchal, F., et al. (2008). Mucocele of the appendix and pseudomyxoma peritonei. Journal de Radiologie, 89, 751–762.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fajardo, A. D., Tan, B., Reddy, R., & Fleshman, J. (2012). Delayed repeated intraperitoneal chemotherapy after cytoreductive surgery for colorectal and appendiceal carcinomatosis. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, 55, 1044–1052.

    Google Scholar 

  • Farquharson, A. L., Pranesh, N., Witham, G., Swindell, R., Taylor, M. B., Renehan, A. G., et al. (2008). A phase II study evaluating the use of concurrent mitomycin C and capecitabine in patients with advanced unresectable pseudomyxoma peritonei. British Journal of Cancer, 99, 591–596.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Flatmark, K., Davidson, B., Kristian, A., Stavnes, H. T., Forsund, M., & Reed, W. (2010). Exploring the peritoneal surface malignancy phenotype—A pilot immunohistochemical study of human pseudomyxoma peritonei and derived animal models. Human Pathology, 41, 1109–1119.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fraenkel, E. (1901). Ueber das sogennante pseudomyxoma perotonei. Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift (1950), 48, 965–971.

    Google Scholar 

  • Franko, J., Ibrahim, Z., Gusani, N. J., Holtzman, M. P., Bartlett, D. L., & Zeh, H. J., III. (2010). Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion versus systemic chemotherapy alone for colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis. Cancer, 116, 3756–3762.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fujimoto, S., Shrestha, R. D., Kokubun, M., Ohta, M., Takahashi, M., Kobayashi, K., et al. (1988). Intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion combined with surgery effective for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal seeding. Annals of Surgery, 208, 36–41.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Fujimoto, S., Takahashi, M., Mutou, T., Kobayashi, K., Toyosawa, T., Isawa, E., et al. (1997). Improved mortality rate of gastric carcinoma patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis treated with intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemoperfusion combined with surgery. Cancer, 79, 884–891.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fujiwara, A., Noura, S., Ohue, M., Shingai, T., Yamada, T., Miyashiro, I., et al. (2010). Significance of the resection of ovarian metastasis from colorectal cancers. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 102, 582–587.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gandhi, V. V., & Nagral, S. (2012). Pseudomyxoma peritonea: Uncommon presentation. The Indian Journal of Surgery, 74, 172–173.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Garrison, R. N., Galloway, R. H., & Heuser, L. S. (1987). Mechanisms of malignant ascites production. Journal of Surgical Research, 42, 126–132.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gervais, M. K., Dube, P., McConnell, Y., Drolet, P., Mitchell, A., & Sideris, L. (2013). Cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with oxaliplatin for peritoneal carcinomatosis arising from colorectal cancer. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 108, 438–443.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ghidirim, G., Mishin, I., & Zastavnitsky, G. (2011). Pseudomyxoma peritonei presenting with inguinal hernia. Chirurgia (Bucur), 106, 527–529.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gill, R. S., Al-Adra, D. P., Nagendran, J., Campbell, S., Shi, X., Haase, E., et al. (2011). Treatment of gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis by cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC: A systematic review of survival, mortality, and morbidity. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 104, 692–698.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gilly, F. N., Carry, P. Y., Sayag, A. C., Brachet, A., Panteix, G., Salle, B., et al. (1994). Regional chemotherapy (with mitomycin C) and intra-operative hyperthermia for digestive cancers with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Hepato-Gastroenterology, 41, 124–129.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gilly, F. N., Cotte, E., Brigand, C., Monneuse, O., Beaujard, A. C., Freyer, G., et al. (2006). Quantitative prognostic indices in peritoneal carcinomatosis. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 32, 597–601.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Glehen, O., Gilly, F. N., Arvieux, C., Cotte, E., Boutitie, F., Mansvelt, B., et al. (2010a). Peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer: A multi-institutional study of 159 patients treated by cytoreductive surgery combined with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 17, 2370–2377.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Glehen, O., Gilly, F. N., Boutitie, F., Bereder, J. M., Quenet, F., Sideris, L., et al. (2010b). Toward curative treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from nonovarian origin by cytoreductive surgery combined with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy: A multi-institutional study of 1,290 patients. Cancer, 116, 5608–5618.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Glehen, O., Kwiatkowski, F., Sugarbaker, P. H., Elias, D., Levine, E. A., de Simone, M., et al. (2004a). Cytoreductive surgery combined with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for the management of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer: A multi-institutional study. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 22, 3284–3292.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Glehen, O., Mithieux, F., Osinsky, D., Beaujard, A. C., Freyer, G., Guertsch, P., et al. (2003). Surgery combined with peritonectomy procedures and intraperitoneal chemohyperthermia in abdominal cancers with peritoneal carcinomatosis: A phase II study. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 21, 799–806.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Glehen, O., Mohamed, F., & Gilly, F. N. (2004b). Peritoneal carcinomatosis from digestive tract cancer: New management by cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemohyperthermia. Lancet Oncology, 5, 219–228.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Glehen, O., Passot, G., Villeneuve, L., Vaudoyer, D., Bin-Dorel, S., Boschetti, G., et al. (2014). GASTRICHIP: D2 resection and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in locally advanced gastric carcinoma: A randomized and multicenter phase III study. BMC Cancer, 14, 183.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Glehen, O., Schreiber, V., Cotte, E., Sayag-Beaujard, A. C., Osinsky, D., Freyer, G., et al. (2004c). Cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemohyperthermia for peritoneal carcinomatosis arising from gastric cancer. Archives of Surgery, 139, 20–26.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Goldstein, P., da Silva, R. G., Cabanas, J., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (2005). Management of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colon cancer, gastric cancer and appendix malignancy. Cancer Therapy, 3, 299–320.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gortchev, G., Tomov, S., Dimitrov, D., Nanev, V., & Betova, T. (2010). Appendiceal mucocele presenting as a right adnexal mass: A case report. Obstetrics and Gynecology International, 2010, 281053.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Gough, D. B., Donohue, J. H., Schutt, A. J., Gonchoroff, N., Goellner, J. R., Wilson, T. O., et al. (1994). Pseudomyxoma peritonei. Long-term patient survival with an aggressive regional approach. Annals of Surgery, 219, 112–119.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Graziano, F., Catalano, V., Lorenzini, P., Giacomini, E., Sarti, D., Fiorentini, G., et al. (2014). Clinical impact of the HGF/MET pathway activation in patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with palliative chemotherapy. Pharmacogenomics Journal, 14, 418–423.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Graziosi, L., Mencarelli, A., Santorelli, C., Renga, B., Cipriani, S., Cavazzoni, E., et al. (2012). Mechanistic role of p38 MAPK in gastric cancer dissemination in a rodent model peritoneal metastasis. European Journal of Pharmacology, 674, 143–152.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Guller, U., Zajac, P., Schnider, A., Bosch, B., Vorburger, S., Zuber, M., et al. (2002). Disseminated single tumor cells as detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction represent a prognostic factor in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer. Annals of Surgery, 236, 768–775. discussion 775–776.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Guo, A. T., Song, X., Wei, L. X., & Zhao, P. (2011). Histological origin of pseudomyxoma peritonei in Chinese women: Clinicopathology and immunohistochemistry. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 17, 3531–3537.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Gusani, N. J., Cho, S. W., Colovos, C., Seo, S., Franko, J., Richard, S. D., et al. (2008). Aggressive surgical management of peritoneal carcinomatosis with low mortality in a high-volume tertiary cancer center. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 15, 754–763.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hadi, R., Saunders, V., Utkina, O., Clingan, P., Kam, P., Links, M., et al. (2006). Review of patients with peritoneal malignancy treated with peritonectomy and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 76, 156–161.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hagendoorn, J., van Lammeren, G., Boerma, D., van der Beek, E., Wiezer, M. J., & van Ramshorst, B. (2009). Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal and gastrointestinal origin shows acceptable morbidity and high survival. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 35, 833–837.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hall, J. J., Loggie, B. W., Shen, P., Beamer, S., Douglas Case, L., Mcquellon, R., et al. (2004). Cytoreductive surgery with intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, 8, 454–463.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hallissey, M. T., Dunn, J. A., Ward, L. C., & Allum, W. H. (1994). The second British Stomach Cancer Group trial of adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy in resectable gastric cancer: Five-year follow-up. Lancet, 343, 1309–1312.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hamazoe, R., Maeta, M., & Kaibara, N. (1994). Intraperitoneal thermochemotherapy for prevention of peritoneal recurrence of gastric cancer. Final results of a randomized controlled study. Cancer, 73, 2048–2052.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hara, M., Nakanishi, H., Jun, Q., Kanemitsu, Y., Ito, S., Mochizuki, Y., et al. (2007). Comparative analysis of intraperitoneal minimal free cancer cells between colorectal and gastric cancer patients using quantitative RT-PCR: Possible reason for rare peritoneal recurrence in colorectal cancer. Clinical and Experimental Metastasis, 24, 179–189.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Harmon, R. L., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (2005). Prognostic indicators in peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastrointestinal cancer. International Seminars in Surgical Oncology, 2, 3.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Haslinger, M., Francescutti, V., Attwood, K., Mccart, J. A., Fakih, M., Kane, J. M., III, et al. (2013). A contemporary analysis of morbidity and outcomes in cytoreduction/hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion. Cancer Medicine, 2, 334–342.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Hermans, J., Bonenkamp, J. J., Boon, M. C., Bunt, A. M., Ohyama, S., Sasako, M., et al. (1993). Adjuvant therapy after curative resection for gastric cancer: Meta-analysis of randomized trials. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 11, 1441–1447.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hill, A. R., Mcquellon, R. P., Russell, G. B., Shen, P., Stewart, J. H. T., & Levine, E. A. (2011). Survival and quality of life following cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis of colonic origin. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 18, 3673–3679.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Hinson, F. L., & Ambrose, N. S. (1998). Pseudomyxoma peritonei. British Journal of Surgery, 85, 1332–1339.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hollingsworth, M. A., & Swanson, B. J. (2004). Mucins in cancer: Protection and control of the cell surface. Nature Reviews Cancer, 4, 45–60.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hompes, D., D’Hoore, A., van Cutsem, E., Fieuws, S., Ceelen, W., Peeters, M., et al. (2012). The treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer with complete cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal peroperative chemotherapy (HIPEC) with oxaliplatin: A Belgian multicentre prospective phase II clinical study. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 19, 2186–2194.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Huang, K. H., Chen, J. H., Wu, C. W., Lo, S. S., Hsieh, M. C., Li, A. F., et al. (2009). Factors affecting recurrence in node-negative advanced gastric cancer. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 24, 1522–1526.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ishigami, H., Kitayama, J., Yamaguchi, H., Emoto, S., & Watanabe, T. (2012). Multidisciplinary treatment for gastric cancer with peritoneal metastasis. Gan to Kagaku Ryoho, 39, 2460–2463.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jacquet, P., Jelinek, J. S., Chang, D., Koslowe, P., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (1995). Abdominal computed tomographic scan in the selection of patients with mucinous peritoneal carcinomatosis for cytoreductive surgery. Journal of the American College of Surgery, 181, 530–538.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jacquet, P., Jelinek, J. S., Steves, M. A., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (1993). Evaluation of computed tomography in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Cancer, 72, 1631–1636.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jacquet, P., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (1996a). Clinical research methodologies in diagnosis and staging of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Cancer Treatment and Research, 82, 359–374.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jacquet, P., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (1996b). Peritoneal-plasma barrier. Cancer Treatment and Research, 82, 53–63.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Japanese Gastric Cancer Association. (1998). Japanese classification of gastric carcinoma—2nd English edition. Gastric Cancer, 1, 10–24.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Japanese Gastric Cancer Association. (2011). Japanese classification of gastric carcinoma: 3rd English edition. Gastric Cancer, 14, 101–112.

    Google Scholar 

  • Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer. (1995). Japanese classification of gastric carcinoma—First English Edition. Tokyo: Kanehara.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jarvinen, P., Jarvinen, H. J., & Lepisto, A. (2010). Survival of patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei treated by serial debulking. Colorectal Disease, 12, 868–872.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jayne, D. (2007). Molecular biology of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Cancer Treatment and Research, 134, 21–33.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jayne, D. G., Fook, S., Loi, C., & Seow-Choen, F. (2002). Peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer. British Journal of Surgery, 89, 1545–1550.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jeung, H. C., Rha, S. Y., Jang, W. I., Noh, S. H., & Chung, H. C. (2002). Treatment of advanced gastric cancer by palliative gastrectomy, cytoreductive therapy and postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. British Journal of Surgery, 89, 460–466.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Juhl, H., Stritzel, M., Wroblewski, A., Henne-Bruns, D., Kremer, B., Schmiegel, W., et al. (1994). Immunocytological detection of micrometastatic cells: Comparative evaluation of findings in the peritoneal cavity and the bone marrow of gastric, colorectal and pancreatic cancer patients. International Journal of Cancer, 57, 330–335.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kalu, E., & Croucher, C. (2005). Appendiceal mucocele: A rare differential diagnosis of a cystic right adnexal mass. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 271, 86–88.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kecmanovic, D. M., Pavlov, M. J., Ceranic, M. S., Sepetkovski, A. V., Kovacevic, P. A., & Stamenkovic, A. B. (2005). Treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer by cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 31, 147–152.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Khan, S., Patel, A. G., & Jurkovic, D. (2002). Incidental ultrasound diagnosis of pseudomyxoma peritonei in an asymptomatic woman. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 19, 410–412.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kianmanesh, R., Scaringi, S., Sabate, J. M., Castel, B., Pons-Kerjean, N., Coffin, B., et al. (2007). Iterative cytoreductive surgery associated with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin with or without liver metastases. Annals of Surgery, 245, 597–603.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Kim, K. W., Chow, O., Parikh, K., Blank, S., Jibara, G., Labow, D. M., et al. (2012a). Risk factors for peritoneal carcinomatosis in gastric cancer patients, and outcomes following resection and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). ASCO Meeting Abstracts, 30, e14656.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kirby, R., Liauw, W., Zhao, J., & Morris, D. (2013). Quality of life study following cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy for pseudomyxoma peritonei including redo procedures. International Journal of Surgical Oncology, 2013, 461041.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Kitayama, J., Ishigami, H., Yamaguchi, H., Yamashita, H., Emoto, S., & Kaisaki, S. (2012). S-1 plus intravenous and intraperitoneal Paclitaxel for gastric cancer with peritoneal metastasis. Gastrointestinal Cancer Research, 5, S10–S13.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Klaver, Y. L., Chua, T. C., de Hingh, I. H., & Morris, D. L. (2012a). Outcomes of elderly patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 105, 113–118.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Klaver, Y. L., Lemmens, V. E., Nienhuijs, S. W., Luyer, M. D., & de Hingh, I. H. (2012b). Peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin: Incidence, prognosis and treatment options. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 18, 5489–5494.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Koh, J. L., Liauw, W., Chua, T., & Morris, D. L. (2013). Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is an independent prognostic indicator in pseudomyxoma peritonei post cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology, 4, 173–181.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Koh, J. L., Yan, T. D., Glenn, D., & Morris, D. L. (2009). Evaluation of preoperative computed tomography in estimating peritoneal cancer index in colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 16, 327–333.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kotanagi, H., Saito, Y., Yoshioka, T., & Koyama, K. (1998). Characteristics of two cancer cell lines derived from metastatic foci in liver and peritoneum of a patient with colon cancer. Journal of Gastroenterology, 33, 842–849.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Koyama, S., Tomimatsu, T., Sawada, K., Kanagawa, T., Tsutsui, T., & Kimura, T. (2011). Pseudomyxoma peritonei originating from colorectal cancer during pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 37, 254–258.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kreel, L., & Bydder, G. M. (1980). Computed tomography of fluid collections within the abdomen. The Journal of Computed Tomography, 4, 105–115.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kuijpers, A. M., Mirck, B., Aalbers, A. G., Nienhuijs, S. W., de Hingh, I. H., Wiezer, M. J., et al. (2013). Cytoreduction and HIPEC in the Netherlands: Nationwide long-term outcome following the Dutch protocol. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 20, 4224–4230.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Kuramoto, M., Shimada, S., Ikeshima, S., Matsuo, A., Yagi, Y., Matsuda, M., et al. (2009). Extensive intraoperative peritoneal lavage as a standard prophylactic strategy for peritoneal recurrence in patients with gastric carcinoma. Annals of Surgery, 250, 242–246.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kusamura, S., Hutanu, I., Baratti, D., & Deraco, M. (2013). Circulating tumor markers: Predictors of incomplete cytoreduction and powerful determinants of outcome in pseudomyxoma peritonei. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 108, 1–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kusamura, S., Moran, B. J., Sugarbaker, P. H., Levine, E. A., Elias, D., Baratti, D., et al. (2014). Multicentre study of the learning curve and surgical performance of cytoreductive surgery with intraperitoneal chemotherapy for pseudomyxoma peritonei. British Journal of Surgery, 101, 1758–1765.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lee, C. C., Lo, S. S., Wu, C. W., Shen, K. H., Li, A. F., Hsieh, M. C., et al. (2003). Peritoneal recurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma after curative resection. Hepato-Gastroenterology, 50, 1720–1722.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lee, Y. T., Ng, E. K., Hung, L. C., Chung, S. C., Ching, J. Y., Chan, W. Y., et al. (2005). Accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography in diagnosing ascites and predicting peritoneal metastases in gastric cancer patients. Gut, 54, 1541–1545.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Lee, S. D., Ryu, K. W., Eom, B. W., Lee, J. H., Kook, M. C., & Kim, Y. W. (2012). Prognostic significance of peritoneal washing cytology in patients with gastric cancer. British Journal of Surgery, 99, 397–403.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Levine, E. A., Stewart, J. H. T., Shen, P., Russell, G. B., Loggie, B. L., & Votanopoulos, K. I. (2014). Intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal surface malignancy: Experience with 1,000 patients. Journal of the American College of Surgery, 218, 573–585.

    Google Scholar 

  • Li, Z., Miao, Z., Jin, G., Li, X., Li, H., Lv, Z., et al. (2012). Betaig-h3 supports gastric cancer cell adhesion, migration and proliferation in peritoneal carcinomatosis. Molecular Medicine Reports, 6, 558–564.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lise, M., Nitti, D., Marchet, A., Sahmoud, T., Buyse, M., Duez, N., et al. (1995). Final results of a phase III clinical trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with the modified fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and mitomycin regimen in resectable gastric cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 13, 2757–2763.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lloyd, J. M., McIver, C. M., Stephenson, S. A., Hewett, P. J., Rieger, N., & Hardingham, J. E. (2006). Identification of early-stage colorectal cancer patients at risk of relapse post-resection by immunobead reverse transcription-PCR analysis of peritoneal lavage fluid for malignant cells. Clinical Cancer Research, 12, 417–423.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Loggie, B. W., Fleming, R. A., Mcquellon, R. P., Russell, G. B., & Geisinger, K. R. (2000). Cytoreductive surgery with intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy for disseminated peritoneal cancer of gastrointestinal origin. American Surgeon, 66, 561–568.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Loungnarath, R., Causeret, S., Bossard, N., Faheez, M., Sayag-Beaujard, A. C., Brigand, C., et al. (2005). Cytoreductive surgery with intraperitoneal chemohyperthermia for the treatment of pseudomyxoma peritonei: A prospective study. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, 48, 1372–1379.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lv, Z. D., Wang, H. B., Li, F. N., Wu, L., Liu, C., Nie, G., et al. (2012). TGF-beta1 induces peritoneal fibrosis by activating the Smad2 pathway in mesothelial cells and promotes peritoneal carcinomatosis. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 29, 373–379.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Maehara, Y., Hasuda, S., Koga, T., Tokunaga, E., Kakeji, Y., & Sugimachi, K. (2000). Postoperative outcome and sites of recurrence in patients following curative resection of gastric cancer. British Journal of Surgery, 87, 353–357.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Magge, D., Zenati, M., Mavanur, A., Winer, J., Ramalingam, L., Jones, H., et al. (2014). Aggressive locoregional surgical therapy for gastric peritoneal carcinomatosis. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 21, 1448–1455.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Mahteme, H., Hansson, J., Berglund, A., Pahlman, L., Glimelius, B., Nygren, P., et al. (2004). Improved survival in patients with peritoneal metastases from colorectal cancer: A preliminary study. British Journal of Cancer, 90, 403–407.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Mall, A. S., Chirwa, N., Govender, D., Lotz, Z., Tyler, M., Rodrigues, J., et al. (2007). MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B in the mucus of a patient with pseudomyxoma peritonei: Biochemical and immunohistochemical study. Pathology International, 57, 537–547.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mall, A. S., Lotz, Z., Tyler, M., Goldberg, P., Rodrigues, J., Kahn, D., et al. (2011). Immunohistochemical and biochemical characterization of mucin in pseudomyxoma peritonei: A case study. Case Reports in Gastroenterology, 5, 5–16.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Mann, W. J., Jr., Wagner, J., Chumas, J., & Chalas, E. (1990). The management of pseudomyxoma peritonei. Cancer, 66, 1636–1640.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Marcotte, E., Dube, P., Drolet, P., Mitchell, A., Frenette, S., Leblanc, G., et al. (2014). Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with oxaliplatin as treatment for peritoneal carcinomatosis arising from the appendix and pseudomyxoma peritonei: A survival analysis. World Journal of Surgical Oncology, 12, 332.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Marutsuka, T., Shimada, S., Shiomori, K., Hayashi, N., Yagi, Y., Yamane, T., et al. (2003). Mechanisms of peritoneal metastasis after operation for non-serosa-invasive gastric carcinoma: An ultrarapid detection system for intraperitoneal free cancer cells and a prophylactic strategy for peritoneal metastasis. Clinical Cancer Research, 9, 678–685.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Matsuoka, Y., Masumoto, T., Suzuki, K., Terada, K., Ushimi, T., Yokoyama, Y., et al. (1999). Pseudomyxoma retroperitonei. European Radiology, 9, 457–459.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McBride, K., Mcfadden, D., & Osler, T. (2013). Improved survival of patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei receiving intraperitoneal chemotherapy with cytoreductive surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Surgical Research, 183, 246–252.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Miner, T. J., Shia, J., Jaques, D. P., Klimstra, D. S., Brennan, M. F., & Coit, D. G. (2005). Long-term survival following treatment of pseudomyxoma peritonei: An analysis of surgical therapy. Annals of Surgery, 241, 300–308.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Mirich, D. R., Gray, R. R., & Grosman, H. (1989). Abdominal plexiform neurofibromatosis simulating pseudomyxoma peritonei on computed tomography. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, 13, 709–711.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mohamed, F., Cecil, T., Moran, B., & Sugarbaker, P. (2011). A new standard of care for the management of peritoneal surface malignancy. Current Oncology, 18, e84–e96.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Mohamed, F., & Moran, B. J. (2009). Morbidity and mortality with cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy: The importance of a learning curve. Cancer Journal, 15, 196–199.

    Google Scholar 

  • Montori, G., Coccolini, F., Ceresoli, M., Catena, F., Colaianni, N., Poletti, E., et al. (2014). The treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis in advanced gastric cancer: State of the art. International Journal of Surgical Oncology, 2014, 912418.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Moran, B., Baratti, D., Yan, T. D., Kusamura, S., & Deraco, M. (2008). Consensus statement on the loco-regional treatment of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms with peritoneal dissemination (pseudomyxoma peritonei). Journal of Surgical Oncology, 98, 277–282.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Morris-Stiff, G., Falk, G. A., Joyce, D., & Chalikonda, S. (2011). Unusual contents of a scrotal swelling. BMJ Case Reports, 2011.

    Google Scholar 

  • Murphy, E. M., Sexton, R., & Moran, B. J. (2007). Early results of surgery in 123 patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei from a perforated appendiceal neoplasm. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, 50, 37–42.

    Google Scholar 

  • Newman, C. M., & Moran, B. J. (2011). Pseudomyxoma peritonei presenting as recurrent rectal cancer: A preventable condition? Techniques in Coloproctology, 15, 89–90.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • NORD. (2015). Pseudomyxoma peritonei [Online]. Retrieved April 3, 2015, from https://www.rarediseases.org/rare-disease-information/rare-diseases/byID/843/viewFullReport

  • Nozoe, T., Anai, H., Nasu, S., & Sugimachi, K. (2000). Clinicopathological characteristics of mucinous carcinoma of the colon and rectum. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 75, 103–107.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • O’Connell, J. T., Hacker, C. M., & Barsky, S. H. (2002a). MUC2 is a molecular marker for pseudomyxoma peritonei. Modern Pathology, 15, 958–972.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • O’Connell, J. T., Tomlinson, J. S., Roberts, A. A., Mcgonigle, K. F., & Barsky, S. H. (2002b). Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a disease of MUC2-expressing goblet cells. American Journal of Pathology, 161, 551–564.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Okugawa, Y., Inoue, Y., Tanaka, K., Kawamura, M., Saigusa, S., Toiyama, Y., et al. (2013). Smad interacting protein 1 (SIP1) is associated with peritoneal carcinomatosis in intestinal type gastric cancer. Clinical and Experimental Metastasis, 30, 417–429.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • ORDR. (2015). Pseudomyxoma peritonei [Online]. Retrieved April 3, 2015, from http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/gard/7488/pseudomyxoma-peritonei/resources/1

  • Orphanet. (2015). Pseudomyxoma peritonei [Online]. Retrieved April 3, 2015, from http://www.orpha.net/consor/cgi-bin/OC_Exp.php?lng=EN&Expert=26790

  • Pande, R., Sunga, A., Levea, C., Wilding, G. E., Bshara, W., Reid, M., et al. (2008). Significance of signet-ring cells in patients with colorectal cancer. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, 51, 50–55.

    Google Scholar 

  • Panteix, G., Beaujard, A., Garbit, F., Chaduiron-Faye, C., Guillaumont, M., Gilly, F., et al. (2002). Population pharmacokinetics of cisplatin in patients with advanced ovarian cancer during intraperitoneal hyperthermia chemotherapy. Anticancer Research, 22, 1329–1336.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Parsons, S. L., Watson, S. A., & Steele, R. J. (1996). Malignant ascites. British Journal of Surgery, 83, 6–14.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Passot, G., Glehen, O., Pellet, O., Isaac, S., Tychyj, C., Mohamed, F., et al. (2010). Pseudomyxoma peritonei: Role of 18F-FDG PET in preoperative evaluation of pathological grade and potential for complete cytoreduction. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 36, 315–323.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Passot, G., Vaudoyer, D., Cotte, E., You, B., Isaac, S., Noel Gilly, F., et al. (2012). Progression following neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy may not be a contraindication to a curative approach for colorectal carcinomatosis. Annals of Surgery, 256, 125–129.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pestieau, S. R., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (2000). Treatment of primary colon cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis: Comparison of concomitant vs. delayed management. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, 43, 1341–1346. discussion 1347–1348.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pietrantonio, F., Maggi, C., Fanetti, G., Iacovelli, R., di Bartolomeo, M., Ricchini, F., et al. (2014). FOLFOX-4 chemotherapy for patients with unresectable or relapsed peritoneal pseudomyxoma. The Oncologist, 19, 845–850.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Pilati, P., Mocellin, S., Rossi, C. R., Foletto, M., Campana, L., Nitti, D., et al. (2003). Cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal intraoperative chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis arising from colon adenocarcinoma. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 10, 508–513.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Piso, P., Bektas, H., Werner, U., Schlitt, H. J., Kubicka, S., Bornscheuer, A., et al. (2001). Improved prognosis following peritonectomy procedures and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis from appendiceal carcinoma. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 27, 286–290.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Portilla, A. G., Sugarbaker, P. H., & Chang, D. (1999). Second-look surgery after cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer: Analysis of prognostic features. World Journal of Surgery, 23, 23–29.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Preusser, P., Wilke, H., Achterrath, W., Fink, U., Lenaz, L., Heinicke, A., et al. (1989). Phase II study with the combination etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin in advanced measurable gastric cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 7, 1310–1317.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Quenet, F., Goere, D., Mehta, S. S., Roca, L., Dumont, F., Hessissen, M., et al. (2011). Results of two bi-institutional prospective studies using intraperitoneal oxaliplatin with or without irinotecan during HIPEC after cytoreductive surgery for colorectal carcinomatosis. Annals of Surgery, 254, 294–301.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rekhraj, S., Aziz, O., Prabhudesai, S., Zacharakis, E., Mohr, F., Athanasiou, T., et al. (2008). Can intra-operative intraperitoneal free cancer cell detection techniques identify patients at higher recurrence risk following curative colorectal cancer resection: A meta-analysis. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 15, 60–68.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rezkalla, M. A., Peterson, K. G., & Ryan, J. J. (2006). Pseudomyxoma peritonei: A case of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix presenting as inguinal hernia. South Dakota Medicine, 59, 54–55. 57.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rohani, P., Scotti, S. D., Shen, P., Stewart, J. H., Russell, G. B., Cromer, M., et al. (2010). Use of FDG-PET imaging for patients with disseminated cancer of the appendix. American Surgeon, 76, 1338–1344.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ronnett, B. M., Yan, H., Kurman, R. J., Shmookler, B. M., Wu, L., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (2001). Patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei associated with disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis have a significantly more favorable prognosis than patients with peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis. Cancer, 92, 85–91.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ronnett, B. M., Zahn, C. M., Kurman, R. J., Kass, M. E., Sugarbaker, P. H., & Shmookler, B. M. (1995). Disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis and peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis. A clinicopathologic analysis of 109 cases with emphasis on distinguishing pathologic features, site of origin, prognosis, and relationship to “pseudomyxoma peritonei”. American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 19, 1390–1408.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Roth, A. D., Fazio, N., Stupp, R., Falk, S., Bernhard, J., Saletti, P., et al. (2007). Docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil; docetaxel and cisplatin; and epirubicin, cisplatin, and fluorouracil as systemic treatment for advanced gastric carcinoma: A randomized phase II trial of the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 25, 3217–3223.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rouers, A., Laurent, S., Detroz, B., & Meurisse, M. (2006). Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis: Higher complication rate for oxaliplatin compared to Mitomycin C. Acta Chirurgica Belgica, 106, 302–306.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Roviello, F., Marrelli, D., de Manzoni, G., Morgagni, P., di Leo, A., Saragoni, L., et al. (2003). Prospective study of peritoneal recurrence after curative surgery for gastric cancer. British Journal of Surgery, 90, 1113–1119.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Royal, R. E., & Pingpank, J. F., Jr. (2008). Diagnosis and management of peritoneal carcinomatosis arising from adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum. Seminar in Oncology, 35, 183–191.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sadeghi, B., Arvieux, C., Glehen, O., Beaujard, A. C., Rivoire, M., Baulieux, J., et al. (2000). Peritoneal carcinomatosis from non-gynecologic malignancies: Results of the EVOCAPE 1 multicentric prospective study. Cancer, 88, 358–363.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Saito, H., Kihara, K., Kuroda, H., Matsunaga, T., Tatebe, S., & Ikeguchi, M. (2011). Surgical outcomes for gastric cancer patients with intraperitoneal free cancer cell, but no macroscopic peritoneal metastasis. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 104, 534–537.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sako, A., Kitayama, J., Koyama, H., Ueno, H., Uchida, H., Hamada, H., et al. (2004). Transduction of soluble Flt-1 gene to peritoneal mesothelial cells can effectively suppress peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer. Cancer Research, 64, 3624–3628.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Satoyoshi, R., Aiba, N., Yanagihara, K., Yashiro, M., & Tanaka, M. (2015). Tks5 activation in mesothelial cells creates invasion front of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Oncogene, 34(24), 3176–3187.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Saxena, A., Yan, T. D., Chua, T. C., & Morris, D. L. (2010). Critical assessment of risk factors for complications after cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for pseudomyxoma peritonei. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 17, 1291–1301.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sayag-Beaujard, A. C., Francois, Y., Glehen, O., Sadeghi-Looyeh, B., Bienvenu, J., Panteix, G., et al. (1999). Intraperitoneal chemo-hyperthermia with mitomycin C for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Anticancer Research, 19, 1375–1382.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Semino-Mora, C., Liu, H., Mcavoy, T., Nieroda, C., Studeman, K., Sardi, A., et al. (2008). Pseudomyxoma peritonei: Is disease progression related to microbial agents? A study of bacteria, MUC2 AND MUC5AC expression in disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis and peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 15, 1414–1423.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Seyfried, F., von Rahden, B., Miras, A., Gasser, M., Maeder, U., Kunzmann, V., et al. (2015). Incidence, time course and independent risk factors for metachronous peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric origin—A longitudinal experience from a prospectively collected database of 1108 patients. BMC Cancer, 15, 1–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shen, P., Hawksworth, J., Lovato, J., Loggie, B. W., Geisinger, K. R., Fleming, R. A., et al. (2004). Cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy with mitomycin C for peritoneal carcinomatosis from nonappendiceal colorectal carcinoma. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 11, 178–186.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shetty, S., Natarajan, B., Thomas, P., Govindarajan, V., Sharma, P., & Loggie, B. (2013). Proposed classification of pseudomyxoma peritonei: Influence of signet ring cells on survival. American Surgeon, 79, 1171–1176.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shimotsuma, M., Shields, J. W., Simpson-Morgan, M. W., Sakuyama, A., Shirasu, M., Hagiwara, A., et al. (1993). Morpho-physiological function and role of omental milky spots as omentum-associated lymphoid tissue (OALT) in the peritoneal cavity. Lymphology, 26, 90–101.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shinohara, T., Misawa, K., Sano, H., Okawa, Y., & Takada, A. (2006). Pseudomyxoma peritonei due to mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in situ of the urachus presenting as an inguinal hernia. International Journal of Clinical Oncology, 11, 416–419.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Skaane, P., Isachsen, M. M., & Hoiseth, A. (1985). Computed tomography of mucin-producing adenocarcinoma of the appendix presenting as a bladder tumor. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, 9, 566–567.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Smeenk, R. M., Bruin, S. C., van Velthuysen, M. L., & Verwaal, V. J. (2008a). Pseudomyxoma peritonei. Current Problems in Surgery, 45, 527–575.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Smeenk, R. M., van Velthuysen, M. L., Verwaal, V. J., & Zoetmulder, F. A. (2008b). Appendiceal neoplasms and pseudomyxoma peritonei: A population based study. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 34, 196–201.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Smeenk, R. M., Verwaal, V. J., Antonini, N., & Zoetmulder, F. A. (2007a). Survival analysis of pseudomyxoma peritonei patients treated by cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Annals of Surgery, 245, 104–109.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Smeenk, R. M., Verwaal, V. J., & Zoetmulder, F. A. (2007b). Pseudomyxoma peritonei. Cancer Treatment Reviews, 33, 138–145.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, J. W., Kemeny, N., Caldwell, C., Banner, P., Sigurdson, E., & Huvos, A. (1992). Pseudomyxoma peritonei of appendiceal origin. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience. Cancer, 70, 396–401.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Snyder, T. E., & Vandivort, M. R. (1992). Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the appendix with pseudomyxoma peritonei presenting as total uterine prolapse. A case report. Journal of Reproductive Medicin, 37, 103–106.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sobin, L. H., Gospodarowicz, M. K., & Wittekind, C. (2009). TNM classification of malignant tumours (7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Solomon, M. J., Egan, M., Roberts, R. A., Philips, J., & Russell, P. (1997). Incidence of free colorectal cancer cells on the peritoneal surface. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, 40, 1294–1298.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sorensen, O., Flatmark, K., Reed, W., Wiig, J. N., Dueland, S., Giercksky, K. E., et al. (2012). Evaluation of complete cytoreductive surgery and two intraperitoneal chemotherapy techniques in Pseudomyxoma peritonei. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 38, 969–976.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Spiliotis, J., Efstathiou, E., Halkia, E., Vaxevanidou, A., Datsis, A., & Sugarbaker, P. (2012). The influence of tumor cell entrapment phenomenon on the natural history of Pseudomyxoma peritonei syndrome. Hepato-Gastroenterology, 59, 705–708.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Srinivasaiah, N., Retnasingam, G., Kasarneni, R., & Slater, B. (2009). Pseudomyxoma peritonei: A rare presentation as an umbilical nodule. Irish Journal of Medical Science, 178, 219–221.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stewart, J. H. T., Shen, P., & Levine, E. A. (2005). Intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy for peritoneal surface malignancy: Current status and future directions. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 12, 765–777.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H. (1991). Cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy with peritoneal spread of cystadenocarcinoma. European Journal of Surgery. Supplement, (561), 75–82.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H. (1994). Pseudomyxoma peritonei. A cancer whose biology is characterized by a redistribution phenomenon. Annals of Surgery, 219, 109–111.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H. (1995). Peritonectomy procedures. Annals of Surgery, 221, 29–42.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. (1996a). Observations concerning cancer spread within the peritoneal cavity and concepts supporting an ordered pathophysiology. In P. Sugarbaker (Ed.), Peritoneal carcinomatosis: Principles of management. Boston: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H. (1996b). Observations concerning cancer spread within the peritoneal cavity and concepts supporting an ordered pathophysiology. Cancer Treatment and Research, 82, 79–100.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H. (1996c). Pseudomyxoma peritonei. Cancer Treatment and Research, 81, 105–119.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H. (1999a). Management of peritoneal-surface malignancy: The surgeon’s role. Langenbeck’s Archives of Surgery, 384, 576–587.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H. (1999b). Successful management of microscopic residual disease in large bowel cancer. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, 43(Suppl), S15–S25.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H. (2001). Cytoreductive surgery and peri-operative intraperitoneal chemotherapy as a curative approach to pseudomyxoma peritonei syndrome. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 27, 239–243.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H. (2005a). A curative approach to peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer. Seminar in Oncology, 32, S68–S73.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H. (2005c). Technical handbook for the integration of cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy into the surgical management of gastrointestinal and gynecologic malignancy. Grand Rapids, MI: The Ludann Company.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H. (2006a). The natural history, gross pathology, and histopathology of appendiceal epithelial neoplasms. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 32, 644–647.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H. (2012). Cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic perioperative chemotherapy for selected patients with peritoneal metastases from colorectal cancer: A new standard of care or an experimental approach? Gastroenterology Research and Practice, 2012, 309417.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H., & Averbach, A. M. (1996). Krukenberg syndrome as a natural manifestation of tumor cell entrapment. Cancer Treatment and Research, 82, 163–191.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H., & Chang, D. (1999). Results of treatment of 385 patients with peritoneal surface spread of appendiceal malignancy. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 6, 727–731.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H., Graves, T., Debruijn, E. A., Cunliffe, W. J., Mullins, R. E., Hull, W. E., et al. (1990). Early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy as an adjuvant therapy to surgery for peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastrointestinal cancer: Pharmacological studies. Cancer Research, 50, 5790–5794.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H., & Jablonski, K. A. (1995). Prognostic features of 51 colorectal and 130 appendiceal cancer patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis treated by cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Annals of Surgery, 221, 124–132.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H., Ronnett, B. M., Archer, A., Averbach, A. M., Bland, R., Chang, D., et al. (1996). Pseudomyxoma peritonei syndrome. Advances in Surgery, 30, 233–280.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H., & Yonemura, Y. (2000). Clinical pathway for the management of resectable gastric cancer with peritoneal seeding: Best palliation with a ray of hope for cure. Oncology, 58, 96–107.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H., Yu, W., & Yonemura, Y. (2003). Gastrectomy, peritonectomy, and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy: The evolution of treatment strategies for advanced gastric cancer. Seminars in Surgical Oncology, 21, 233–248.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sugarbaker, P. H., Zhu, B. W., Sese, G. B., & Shmookler, B. (1993). Peritoneal carcinomatosis from appendiceal cancer: Results in 69 patients treated by cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, 36, 323–329.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sugi Subramaniam, R. V., Karthikeyan, V. S., Sistla, S. C., Ali, S. M., Sistla, S., Ram, D., et al. (2013). Melioidosis presenting as pseudomyxoma peritonei: Yet another pretense of the great mimicker: An unreported entity. Surgical Infections, 14, 415–417.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sulkin, T. V., O’Neill, H., Amin, A. I., & Moran, B. (2002). CT in pseudomyxoma peritonei: A review of 17 cases. Clinical Radiology, 57, 608–613.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Taflampas, P., Dayal, S., Chandrakumaran, K., Mohamed, F., Cecil, T. D., & Moran, B. J. (2014). Pre-operative tumour marker status predicts recurrence and survival after complete cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for appendiceal Pseudomyxoma Peritonei: Analysis of 519 patients. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 40, 515–520.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tamsma, J. (2007). The pathogenesis of malignant ascites. Cancer Treatment and Research, 134, 109–118.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tentes, A. A., Spiliotis, I. D., Korakianitis, O. S., Vaxevanidou, A., & Kyziridis, D. (2011). Adjuvant perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy in locally advanced colorectal carcinoma: Preliminary results. ISRN Surgery, 2011, 529876.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Thomassen, I., van Gestel, Y. R., van Ramshorst, B., Luyer, M. D., Bosscha, K., Nienhuijs, S. W., et al. (2014). Peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric origin: A population-based study on incidence, survival and risk factors. International Journal of Cancer, 134, 622–628.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Torre, L. A., Bray, F., Siegel, R. L., Ferlay, J., Lortet-Tieulent, J., & Jemal, A. (2015). Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 65, 87–108.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tsukada, T., Fushida, S., Harada, S., Yagi, Y., Kinoshita, J., Oyama, K., et al. (2012). The role of human peritoneal mesothelial cells in the fibrosis and progression of gastric cancer. International Journal of Oncology, 41, 476–482.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Turrini, O., Lambaudie, E., Faucher, M., Viret, F., Blache, J. L., Houvenaeghel, G., et al. (2012). Initial experience with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Archives of Surgery, 147, 919–923.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ung, L., Chua, T. C., & David, L. M. (2013a). Peritoneal metastases of lower gastrointestinal tract origin: A comparative study of patient outcomes following cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, 139, 1899–1908.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ung, L., Chua, T. C., & Morris, D. L. (2013b). Cure for peritoneal metastases? An evidence-based review. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 83, 821–826.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Vaira, M., Cioppa, T., D’Amico, S., de Marco, G., D’Alessandro, M., Fiorentini, G., et al. (2010). Treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colonic cancer by cytoreduction, peritonectomy and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Experience of ten years. In Vivo, 24, 79–84.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • van Ruth, S., Hart, A. A., Bonfrer, J. M., Verwaal, V. J., & Zoetmulder, F. A. (2002). Prognostic value of baseline and serial carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19.9 measurements in patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei treated with cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 9, 961–967.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • van Ruth, S., Verwaal, V. J., & Zoetmulder, F. A. (2003). Pharmacokinetics of intraperitoneal mitomycin C. Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America, 12, 771–780.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Varban, O., Levine, E. A., Stewart, J. H., McCoy, T. P., & Shen, P. (2009). Outcomes associated with cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients with peritoneal surface disease and hepatic metastases. Cancer, 115, 3427–3436.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Varghese, S., Burness, M., Xu, H., Beresnev, T., Pingpank, J., & Alexander, H. R. (2007). Site-specific gene expression profiles and novel molecular prognostic factors in patients with lower gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma diffusely metastatic to liver or peritoneum. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 14, 3460–3471.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Verwaal, V. J., Bruin, S., Boot, H., van Slooten, G., & van Tinteren, H. (2008). 8-year follow-up of randomized trial: Cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy versus systemic chemotherapy in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 15, 2426–2432.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Verwaal, V. J., van Ruth, S., de Bree, E., van Sloothen, G. W., van Tinteren, H., Boot, H., et al. (2003). Randomized trial of cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy versus systemic chemotherapy and palliative surgery in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 21, 3737–3743.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Verwaal, V. J., van Ruth, S., Witkamp, A., Boot, H., van Slooten, G., & Zoetmulder, F. A. (2005). Long-term survival of peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 12, 65–71.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Verwaal, V. J., van Tinteren, H., van Ruth, S., & Zoetmulder, F. A. (2004a). Toxicity of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intra-peritoneal chemotherapy. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 85, 61–67.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Verwaal, V. J., van Tinteren, H., van Ruth, S., & Zoetmulder, F. A. (2004b). Predicting the survival of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin treated by aggressive cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. British Journal of Surgery, 91, 739–746.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Waddell, T., Verheij, M., Allum, W., Cunningham, D., Cervantes, A., & Arnold, D. (2014). Gastric cancer: ESMO-ESSO-ESTRO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 40, 584–591.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wanebo, H. J., Kennedy, B. J., Chmiel, J., Steele, G., Jr., Winchester, D., & Osteen, R. (1993). Cancer of the stomach. A patient care study by the American College of Surgeons. Annals of Surgery, 218, 583–592.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Washington, K. (2010). 7th edition of the AJCC cancer staging manual: Stomach. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 17, 3077–3079.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Werth, R. (1884). Klinische und anatomische untersuchungen zur lehre von den bauchgeschwülsten und der laparatomie. Archiv Fur Gynakologie, 24, 100–118.

    Google Scholar 

  • Witkamp, A. J., de Bree, E., Kaag, M. M., Boot, H., Beijnen, J. H., van Slooten, G. W., et al. (2001a). Extensive cytoreductive surgery followed by intra-operative hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with mitomycin-C in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin. European Journal of Cancer, 37, 979–984.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Witkamp, A. J., de Bree, E., Kaag, M. M., van Slooten, G. W., van Coevorden, F., & Zoetmulder, F. A. (2001b). Extensive surgical cytoreduction and intraoperative hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei. British Journal of Surgery, 88, 458–463.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yamaguchi, T., Fushida, S., Tsukada, T., Kinoshita, J., Oyama, K., Watanabe, T., et al. (2014). The role of intraperitoneal macrophages in the progression of peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer. Gan to Kagaku Ryoho, 41, 1270–1272.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yamamura, Y., Ito, S., Mochizuki, Y., Nakanishi, H., Tatematsu, M., & Kodera, Y. (2007). Distribution of free cancer cells in the abdominal cavity suggests limitations of bursectomy as an essential component of radical surgery for gastric carcinoma. Gastric Cancer, 10, 24–28.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yan, T. D., Black, D., Savady, R., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (2006a). Systematic review on the efficacy of cytoreductive surgery combined with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal carcinoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 24, 4011–4019.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yan, T. D., Black, D., Savady, R., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (2007a). A systematic review on the efficacy of cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for pseudomyxoma peritonei. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 14, 484–492.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yan, T. D., Black, D., Sugarbaker, P. H., Zhu, J., Yonemura, Y., Petrou, G., et al. (2007b). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials on adjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy for resectable gastric cancer. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 14, 2702–2713.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yan, T. D., Chu, F., Links, M., Kam, P. C., Glenn, D., & Morris, D. L. (2006b). Cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal carcinoma: Non-mucinous tumour associated with an improved survival. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 32, 1119–1124.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yan, T. D., Links, M., Fransi, S., Jacques, T., Black, D., Saunders, V., et al. (2007c). Learning curve for cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal surface malignancy—A journey to becoming a Nationally Funded Peritonectomy Center. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 14, 2270–2280.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yan, T. D., Links, M., Xu, Z. Y., Kam, P. C., Glenn, D., & Morris, D. L. (2006c). Cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for pseudomyxoma peritonei from appendiceal mucinous neoplasms. British Journal of Surgery, 93, 1270–1276.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yan, T. D., & Morris, D. L. (2008). Cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for isolated colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis: Experimental therapy or standard of care? Annals of Surgery, 248, 829–835.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yan, T. D., Stuart, O. A., Yoo, D., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (2006d). Perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal surface malignancy. Journal of Translational Medicine, 4, 17.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Yang, Q. M., Bando, E., Kawamura, T., Tsukiyama, G., Nemoto, M., Yonemura, Y., et al. (2006). The diagnostic value of PET-CT for peritoneal dissemination of abdominal malignancies. Gan to Kagaku Ryoho, 33, 1817–1821.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yang, X. J., Huang, C. Q., Suo, T., Mei, L. J., Yang, G. L., Cheng, F. L., et al. (2011a). Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy improves survival of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer: Final results of a phase III randomized clinical trial. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 18, 1575–1581.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Yang, X. J., Li, Y., & Yonemura, Y. (2010). Cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy to treat gastric cancer with ascites and/or peritoneal carcinomatosis: Results from a Chinese center. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 101, 457–464.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yang, S. H., Lin, J. K., Lai, C. R., Chen, C. C., Li, A. F., Liang, W. Y., et al. (2004). Risk factors for peritoneal dissemination of colorectal cancer. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 87, 167–173.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yasumoto, K., Koizumi, K., Kawashima, A., Saitoh, Y., Arita, Y., Shinohara, K., et al. (2006). Role of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer. Cancer Research, 66, 2181–2187.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yasumoto, K., Yamada, T., Kawashima, A., Wang, W., Li, Q., Donev, I. S., et al. (2011). The EGFR ligands amphiregulin and heparin-binding egf-like growth factor promote peritoneal carcinomatosis in CXCR4-expressing gastric cancer. Clinical Cancer Research, 17, 3619–3630.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yonemura, Y. (1996). Contemporary approaches toward cure of gastric cancer. Kanazawa, Japan: Maeda Shoten.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yonemura, Y., Bando, E., Kawamura, T., Ito, H., Endo, Y., Miura, M., et al. (2007a). Cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy for carcinomatosis from gastric cancer. Cancer Treatment and Research, 134, 357–373.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yonemura, Y., Bandou, E., Kawamura, T., Endou, Y., & Sasaki, T. (2006a). Quantitative prognostic indicators of peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 32, 602–606.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yonemura, Y., Bandou, E., Kinoshita, K., Kawamura, T., Takahashi, S., Endou, Y., et al. (2003). Effective therapy for peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer. Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America, 12, 635–648.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yonemura, Y., Bandou, E., Sawa, T., Yoshimitsu, Y., Endou, Y., Sasaki, T., et al. (2006b). Neoadjuvant treatment of gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 32, 661–665.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yonemura, Y., Canbay, E., & Ishibashi, H. (2013). Prognostic factors of peritoneal metastases from colorectal cancer following cytoreductive surgery and perioperative chemotherapy. ScientificWorldJournal, 2013, 978394.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Yonemura, Y., de Aretxabala, X., Fujimura, T., Fushida, S., Katayama, K., Bandou, E., et al. (2001a). Intraoperative chemohyperthermic peritoneal perfusion as an adjuvant to gastric cancer: Final results of a randomized controlled study. Hepato-Gastroenterology, 48, 1776–1782.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yonemura, Y., Elnemr, A., Endou, Y., Hirano, M., Mizumoto, A., Takao, N., et al. (2010a). Multidisciplinary therapy for treatment of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology, 2, 85–97.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Yonemura, Y., Endo, Y., Yamaguchi, T., Fujimura, T., Obata, T., Kawamura, T., et al. (1996a). Mechanisms of the formation of the peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer. International Journal of Oncology, 8, 795–802.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yonemura, Y., Endou, Y., Sasaki, T., Hirano, M., Mizumoto, A., Matsuda, T., et al. (2010b). Surgical treatment for peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 36, 1131–1138.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yonemura, Y., Endou, Y., Shinbo, M., Sasaki, T., Hirano, M., Mizumoto, A., et al. (2009). Safety and efficacy of bidirectional chemotherapy for treatment of patients with peritoneal dissemination from gastric cancer: Selection for cytoreductive surgery. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 100, 311–316.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yonemura, Y., Fujimura, T., Fushida, S., Takegawa, S., Kamata, T., Katayama, K., et al. (1991). Hyperthermo-chemotherapy combined with cytoreductive surgery for the treatment of gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination. World Journal of Surgery, 15, 530–535. discussion 535–536.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yonemura, Y., Fujimura, T., Ninomiya, I., Kim, B. S., Bandou, E., Sawa, T., et al. (2001b). Prediction of peritoneal micrometastasis by peritoneal lavaged cytology and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for matrix metalloproteinase-7 mRNA. Clinical Cancer Research, 7, 1647–1653.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yonemura, Y., Fujimura, T., Nishimura, G., Falla, R., Sawa, T., Katayama, K., et al. (1996b). Effects of intraoperative chemohyperthermia in patients with gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination. Surgery, 119, 437–444.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yonemura, Y., Kawamura, T., Bandou, E., Takahashi, S., Sawa, T., & Matsuki, N. (2005). Treatment of peritoneal dissemination from gastric cancer by peritonectomy and chemohyperthermic peritoneal perfusion. British Journal of Surgery, 92, 370–375.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yonemura, Y., Ninomiya, I., Kaji, M., Sugiyama, K., Fujimura, K., Sawa, T., et al. (1995). Prophylaxis with intraoperative chemohyperthermia against peritoneal recurrence of serosal invasion-positive gastric cancer. World Journal of Surgery, 19, 450–454. discussion 455.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yoo, C. H., Noh, S. H., Shin, D. W., Choi, S. H., & Min, J. S. (2000). Recurrence following curative resection for gastric carcinoma. British Journal of Surgery, 87, 236–242.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Young, R. H., Rosenberg, A. E., & Clement, P. B. (1997). Mucin deposits within inguinal hernia sacs: A presenting finding of low-grade mucinous cystic tumors of the appendix. A report of two cases and a review of the literature. Modern Pathology, 10, 1228–1232.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yu, W., Whang, I., Chung, H. Y., Averbach, A., & Sugarbaker, P. H. (2001). Indications for early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy of advanced gastric cancer: Results of a prospective randomized trial. World Journal of Surgery, 25, 985–990.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zanon, C., Bortolini, M., Chiappino, I., Simone, P., Bruno, F., Gaglia, P., et al. (2006). Cytoreductive surgery combined with intraperitoneal chemohyperthermia for the treatment of advanced colon cancer. World Journal of Surgery, 30, 2025–2032.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zhao, L., Yasumoto, K., Kawashima, A., Nakagawa, T., Takeuchi, S., Yamada, T., et al. (2013). Paracrine activation of MET promotes peritoneal carcinomatosis in scirrhous gastric cancer. Cancer Science, 104, 1640–1646.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zhu, Z. M., Li, Z. R., Huang, Y., Yu, H. H., Huang, X. S., Yan, Y. F., et al. (2014). DJ-1 is involved in the peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer through activation of the Akt signaling pathway. Oncology Reports, 31, 1489–1497.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zieker, D., Konigsrainer, I., Traub, F., Nieselt, K., Knapp, B., Schillinger, C., et al. (2008). PGK1 a potential marker for peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, 21, 429–436.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Amini, A., Masoumi-Moghaddam, S., Morris, D.L. (2016). Peritoneal Dissemination of Gastrointestinal Tumors. In: Utility of Bromelain and N-Acetylcysteine in Treatment of Peritoneal Dissemination of Gastrointestinal Mucin-Producing Malignancies. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28570-2_1

Download citation