Cardiopteridaceae Blume, Rumphia 3: 205 (1847), nom. cons.Peripterygiaceae King (1895).
  • M. SchoriEmail author
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 14)


Twining lianas (Cardiopteris) or evergreen trees or shrubs; laticifers present (Cardiopteris) or absent; buttresses absent or present (Citronella); indument of simple to malpighiaceous hairs. Leaves simple, alternate, sometimes appearing distichous, entire to toothed (Citronella) or palmately lobed (Cardiopteris), penninerved or palmatinerved (Cardiopteris), exstipulate. Inflorescences axillary, occasionally ramiflorous (cauliflorous in Pseudobotrys), flowers arranged in spikes, fascicles, cincinnate panicles or thyrses. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, plants then andromonoecious or dioecious, actinomorphic, usually 5-merous; calyx persistent, articulated at the base, small, generally cupular, sepals 4–5, bases connate, lobes free; petals 4–5, minute to conspicuous, fused at least at the base (free in Citronella), often inflexed at apex, lobes imbricate (Cardiopteris) to valvate, midrib usually thickened ventrally; stamens isomerous, epipetalous (except Citronella), filaments filiform or broad and flattened, glabrous, anthers bisporangiate, basifixed to medifixed, introrse, longitudinally dehiscent; staminodes in pistillate flowers present, resembling stamens or much smaller but pollen sacs sterile; disk absent or present (staminate Cardiopteris, some Gonocaryum); ovary superior, pseudomonomerous, carpels evidently 3, unilocular (or with a partial pseudoseptum), ovules 2, apical, pendent, anatropous (orthotropous in Cardiopteris), unitegmic (ategmic in Cardiopteris); styles 0–2, deciduous to persistent, stigma capitate and often minute, less commonly large and sessile (Gonocaryum); ovary rudiment in staminate flowers small, stigma absent or much reduced. Fruit a drupe, or a samara with accrescent terminal appendage (Cardiopteris). Seed 1, testa vascularised. Embryo small, endosperm generally abundant.


Staminate Flower Pistillate Flower Bisexual Flower Lateral Style Filament Filiform 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Bailey, I.W., Howard, R.A. 1941. The comparative morphology of the Icacinaceae. II. Vessels. J. Arnold Arbor. 22: 171–187.Google Scholar
  2. Beccari, O. 1877. Sulla Cardiopteris lobata. Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 9: 100–108, t. 8.Google Scholar
  3. Byng, J.W., Bernardini, B., Joseph, J.A., Chase, M.W., Utteridge, T.M.A. 2014. Phylogenetic relationships of Icacinaceae focusing on the vining genera. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 176: 277–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chan, Y.Y., Leu, Y.L., Lin, F.W., Li, C.Y., Wu, Y.C., Shi, L.S., Liou, M.J., Wu, T.S. 1998. A secoiridoid and other constituents of Gonocaryum calleryanum. Phytochemistry 47: 1073–1077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fagerlind, F. 1945. Bau des Gynöceums, der Samenlage und des Embryosackes bei einigen Repräsentanten der Familie Icacinaceae. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 39: 346–364.Google Scholar
  6. Gonzáles, F., Betancur, J., Maurin, O., Freudenstein, J.V., Chase, M.W. 2007. Metteniusaceae, an early-diverging family in the lamiid clade. Taxon 56: 795–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Heintzelman, C.E., Howard, R.A. 1948. The comparative morphology of the Icacinaceae. V. The pubescence and the crystals. Amer. J. Bot. 35: 42–52.Google Scholar
  8. Hua, P., Howard, R.A. 2008. Icacinaceae. In: Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. (eds.) Flora of China 11. St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, pp. 505–514.Google Scholar
  9. Kaneko, T., Sakamoto, M., Ohtani, K., Ito, A., Kasai, R., Yamasaki, K., Padorina, W.G. 1995. Secoiridoid and flavonoid glycosides from Gonocaryum calleryanum. Phytochemistry 39: 115–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kårehed, J. 2001. Multiple origin of the tropical forest tree family Icacinaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 2259–2274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kårehed, J. 2002. Not just hollies – the expansion of Aquifoliales. In: Evolutionary Studies in Asterids emphasising Euasterids II. Uppsala, Sweden, Acta Univ. Uppsala, thesis 761.Google Scholar
  12. Kong, D.-R., Peng, H., Liang, H.-X. 2002. A new type of embryo sac in Cardiopteris and its systematic implication. Acta Bot. Sinica 44: 496–498.Google Scholar
  13. Kong, D.-R., Schori, M., Lu, S.-G., Li, L., Peng, H. 2014. Floral development of Cardiopteris, with emphasis on gynoecial structure and ovular morphology. J. Syst. Evol. 52: 629–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lens, F., Kårehed, J., Baas, P., Jansen, S., Rabaey, D., Huysmans, S., Hamann, T., Smets, E. 2008. The wood anatomy of the polyphyletic Icacinaceae s.l., and their relationships within asterids. Taxon 57: 525–552.Google Scholar
  15. Lobreau-Callen, D. 1982. Structures et affinités polliniques des Cardiopterygaceae, Dipentodontaceae, Erythropalaceae et Octoknemataceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 103: 371–412.Google Scholar
  16. Mauritzon, J. 1936. Embryologische Angaben über Stackhousiaceae, Hippocrateaceae und Icacinaceae. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 30: 541–550.Google Scholar
  17. Nasution, R.E. 1998. Gonocaryum Miq. In: Sosef, M.S.M., Hong, L.T., Prawirohatmodjo, S. (eds.) Plant Resources of South-East Asia no. 5(3). Timber trees: Lesser-known timbers. Leiden: Backhuys, pp. 262–263.Google Scholar
  18. Schori, M., Furness, C.A. 2014. Pollen diversity in Aquifoliales. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 175: 169–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sleumer, H.O. 1971. Cardiopteridaceae. Flora Malesiana 7: 93–96.Google Scholar
  20. Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 12, July 2012 [and more or less continuously updated since].
  21. Tobe, H. 2012. Floral structure of Cardiopteris (Cardiopteridaceae) with special emphasis on the gynoecium: systematic and evolutionary implications. J. Plant Res. 125(3): 361–369.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Van Staveren, M.G.C., Baas, P. 1973. Epidermal leaf characters of the Malesian Icacinaceae. Acta Bot. Neerl. 22: 329–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Winkworth, R.C., Lundberg, J., Donoghue, M.J. 2008. Toward a resolution of Campanulid phylogeny, with special reference to the placement of Dipsacales. Taxon 57: 53–65.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental & Plant BiologyOhio UniversityAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations