Advertisement

Caprifoliaceae (with Zabelia incert. sed.)

Caprifoliaceae Juss., Gen. Pl. 210 (1789), nom. cons. Diervillaceae (Raf.) Pyck, Taxon 47: 658 (1998). Linnaeaceae (Raf.) Backlund, Taxon 47: 658 (1998).
  • U. Hofmann
  • V. BittrichEmail author
Chapter
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 14)

Abstract

Tall to medium-sized shrubs or lianas (species of Lonicera), rarely dwarf shrubs (Linnaea) or perennial herbs (Triosteum), winter buds with several scales. Leaves mostly deciduous, opposite, rarely whorled, blades sometimes sinuous to deeply lobed, margin entire or rarely serrate or dentate; normal stipules absent, rarely the bases of opposite leaves form intrapetiolar stipule-like structures of often varying form on subsequent nodes (Leycesteria spp., Lonicera spp.). Inflorescence a thyrse, mostly without terminal flower, or simplified to a spike, raceme or head; all or only the lower cymes often in the axils of foliage leaves. Flowers showy, actinomorphic to ± zygomorphic, haplostemonous, sometimes with supernumerary bracts at the base of the ovary; calyx normally 5-merous, regular or rarely bilabiate, with a short tube and 5 equal or rarely unequal short to long, persistent or deciduous teeth; corolla normally 5-merous, gamopetalous, funnel-shaped or campanulate, regular or normally more or less bilabiate, tube normally longer than the 5 imbricate lobes, sometimes basally gibbous or with a short abaxial spur; nectary usually 1 in the corolla tube at the base of the abaxial petal, or rarely 3–5; stamens 5 of ± equal length or 4, didynamous; anthers introrse, tetrasporangiate, inserted in the corolla tube; style simple, elongate, slender, stigma capitate, discoid or lobed; ovary inferior, of 2–5, very rarely 7–8(–10) carpels, all or only 1–3 fertile (sterile locules often with abortive ovules), more or less constricted beneath the calyx, placentation usually axile, rarely few ovules inserted on free septa in the distal part of the ovary. Fruit a many-seeded septicidal capsule or berry, a drupe with 2–4 pyrenes or a 1–2-seeded achene, sometimes with accrescent bracts; endosperm copious.

Keywords

Corolla Tube Glandular Hair Corolla Lobe Deciduous Shrub Terminal Flower 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Smithsonian Institution. Contrib. U. S. National Herbarium 51: 1–483.Google Scholar
  2. APG III 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161: 105–121.Google Scholar
  3. Backlund, A., Pyck, N. 1998. Diervillaceae and Linnaeaceae, two new families of caprifolioids. Taxon 47: 657–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Behrens, W.J. 1879. Die Nectarien der Blühten. Anatomisch-physiologische Untersuchungen. Flora 62: 113–123.Google Scholar
  5. Bell, C.D., Donoghue, M.J. 2005. Dating the Dipsacales: comparing models, genes, and evolutionary implications. Amer. J. Bot. 92: 284–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benko-Iseppon, A.M., Morawetz, W. 2000. Viburnales: cytological features and a new circumscription. Taxon 49: 5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Böhnke-Gütlein, E., Weberling, F. 1981. Palynologische Untersuchungen an Caprifoliaceae I. Sambuceae, Viburneae und Diervilleae. Acad. Wiss. Abh. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. [Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt] 34: 131–189.Google Scholar
  8. Carlquist, S. 1988. Comparative wood anatomy. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chia-Chi, H., Chao-Xing, H. 1988. Pollen morphology of Caprifoliaceae from China and its taxonomic significance. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 26: 343–352.Google Scholar
  10. Davis, G.L. 1966. Systematic embryology of the Angiosperms. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  11. Donoghue, M.J. 1985. Pollen diversity and exine evolution in Viburnum and the Caprifoliaceae sensu lato. J. Arnold Arbor. 66: 421–469.Google Scholar
  12. Donoghue, M.J., Bell, C.D., Winkworth, R.C. 2003. The evolution of reproductive characters in Dipsacales. Int. J. Plant Sci. 164(5 suppl): S453–S464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fritsch, K. 1892. Caprifoliaceae. In: Engler & Prantl, Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien IV, 4: 159–169. Leipzig: W. Engelmann.Google Scholar
  14. Gould, K.R., Donoghue, M.J. 2000. Phylogeny and biogeography of Triosteum (Caprifoliaceae). Harvard Pap. Bot. 5: 157–166.Google Scholar
  15. Graebner, P. 1901. Die Gattung Linnaea (einschließlich Abelia). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29: 120–145.Google Scholar
  16. Hara, H. 1983. A revision of Caprifoliaceae of Japan with reference to allied plants in other districts and the Adoxaceae. Ginkgoana 5: 1–336.Google Scholar
  17. Hegnauer, R. 1989. Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen. Band 8, Nachträge zu Band 3 und Band 4 (Acanthaceae bis Lythraceae). Basel: Birkhäuser.Google Scholar
  18. Index to plant chromosome numbers (IPCN) 1979–. P. Goldblatt & D.E. Johnson (eds.) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/IPCN (accessed May 2010).
  19. Jacobs, B., Lens, F., Smets, E. 2009. Evolution of fruit and seed characters in the Diervilla and Lonicera clades (Caprifoliaceae, Dipsacales). Ann. Bot. 104: 253–276.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Jacobs, B., Pyck, N., Smets, E. 2010. Phylogeny of the Linnaea clade: Are Abelia and Zabelia closely related? Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 57: 741–752.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Jacobs, B., Geuten, K., Pyck, N., Huysmans, S., Jansen, S., Smets, E. 2011. Unraveling the phylogeny of Heptacodium and Zabelia (Caprifoliaceae): An interdisciplinary approach. Syst. Bot. 26: 231–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Johri, B.M., Ambegaokar, K.B., Srivastava, P.S. 1992. Comparative embryology of Angiosperms. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Judd, W.S., Sanders, R.W., Donoghue, M.J. 1994. Angiosperm family pairs: preliminary phylogenetic analyses. Harvard Pap. Bot. 5: 1–51.Google Scholar
  24. Krüssmann, G. 196. Handbuch der Laubgehölze. 2 Vols. Berlin: Paul Parey.Google Scholar
  25. Landrein, S., Prenner, G. 2013. Unequal twins? Inflorescence evolution in the twinflower tribe Linnaeeae (Caprifoliaceae s.l.). Int. J. Plant Sci. 174: 200–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Landrein, S., Prenner, G., Chase, M.W., Clarkson, J.J. 2012. Abelia and relatives: Phylogenetics of Linnaeeae (Dipsacales–Caprifoliaceae s.l.) and a new interpretation of their inflorescence morphology. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 169: 692–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Perveen, A., Qaiser, M. 2007. Pollen Flora of Pakistan – LV. Caprifoliaceae. Pakistan J. Bot. 39(5): 1393–1401.Google Scholar
  28. Rehder, A. 1903. Synopsis of the genus Lonicera. St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.Google Scholar
  29. Rehder, A. 1912. Lonicera. In: Schneider, C.K. 1912. Illustriertes Handbuch der Laubholzkunde. Jena: Gustav Fischer, pp. 632–753.Google Scholar
  30. Rehder, A. 1940. Manual of cultivated trees and shrubs hardy in North America. Ed. 2, pp. 827–876. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  31. Rehder, A. 1949. Bibliography of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs, hardy in the cooler temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. Jamaica plain, Mass.: Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, pp. 598–630.Google Scholar
  32. Schneider, C.K. 1912. Illustriertes Handbuch der Laubholzkunde: Charakteristik der in Mitteleuropa heimischen und im freien angepflanzten angiospermen Gehölz-Arten und Formen mit Ausschluss der Bambuseen und Kakteen, Bd. 2. Jena: G. Fischer.Google Scholar
  33. Smith, S.A. 2009. Taking into account phylogenetic and divergence-time uncertainty in a parametric biogeographical analysis of a Northern Hemisphere plant clade Caprifolieae. J. Biogeogr. 36: 2324–2337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Theis, N., Donoghue, M.J., Li, J. 2008. Phylogenetics of the Caprifolieae and Lonicera (Dipsacales) based on nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences. Syst. Bot. 33(4): 776–783.Google Scholar
  35. Theisen, I., Barthlott, W. 1996. Die Mikromorphologie epicuticularer Wachse bei den Caprifoliaceae. Feddes Repert. 107: 31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Troll, W., Weberling, F. 1966. Die Infloreszenzen der Caprifoliaceen und ihre systematische Bedeutung. Akad. Wiss. Lit. (Mainz), Abh. Math.-Nat. Kl. Nr. 4: 459–605.Google Scholar
  37. Wagenitz, G., Laing, B. 1984. Die Nektarien der Dipsacales und ihre systematische Bedeutung. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 104: 483–507.Google Scholar
  38. Weberling, F. 1957. Morphologische Untersuchungen zur Systematik der Caprifoliaceen. Akad. Wiss. Lit. (Mainz), Abh. Math.-Nat. Kl. 1: 3–50.Google Scholar
  39. Weberling, F. 1966. Zur systematischen Stellung der Gattung Heptacodium Rehd. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 85: 253–258.Google Scholar
  40. Weberling, F., Hildenbrand, M. 1982. Weitere Untersuchungen zur Tapetumentwicklung der Caprifoliaceae. Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 61: 3–20.Google Scholar
  41. Wilkinson, A.M. 1948a. Floral anatomy and morphology of some species of the tribe Lonicereae of the Caprifoliaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 35: 261–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wilkinson, A.M. 1948b. Floral anatomy and morphology of some species of the tribes Linnaeeae and Sambuceae of the Caprifoliaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 35: 365–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wilkinson, A.M. 1949. Floral anatomy and morphology of Triosteum and of the Caprifoliaceae in general. Amer. J. Bot. 36: 481–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Winkworth, R.C., Bell, C.D., Donoghue, M.J. 2008. Mitochondrial sequence data and Dipsacales phylogeny: Mixed models, partitioned Bayesian analyses, and model selection. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 46: 830–843.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Wittrock, V.B. 1907. Linnaea borealis L. species polymorpha et polychroma. Acta Horti Bergiani 4(7): 5–187.Google Scholar
  46. Xu, L., Lu, L., Li, D.-Z., Wang, H. 2011. Evolution of pollen in Dipsacales. Plant Divers. Resources 33: 249–259.Google Scholar
  47. Yang, Q., Landrein, S. 2011. Linnaeaceae. In: C.Y. Wu et al. (eds.) Flora of China 19: 642–648.Google Scholar
  48. Yang, Q., Barrie, F.R., Bell, C.D. 2011. Diervillaceae. In: C.Y. Wu et al. (eds.) Flora of China 19: 615.Google Scholar
  49. Zhang, W.-H., Chen, Z.-D., Li, J.-H., Chen, H.-B., Tanga, Y.-C. 2003. Phylogeny of the Dipsacales s.l. based on chloroplast trnL-F and ndhF sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 26: 176–189.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Formerly at Systematic Geobotanical InstituteGeorg August Universität GöttingenGöttingenGermany
  2. 2.CampinasBrazil

Personalised recommendations