Valerianaceae Batsch, Tab. Affin. Regni Veg.: 227 (1802), nom. cons.
  • F. Weberling
  • V. BittrichEmail author
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 14)


Annual to perennial, often fetid herbs, subshrubs, sometimes shrubs, rarely ligneous or herbaceous vines; root often a taproot, often slender, sometimes a napiform or fusiform turnip, the stem-borne roots sometimes tuberous; plants often semirosulate, sometimes rosulate; stem often fistulous. Leaves mostly decussate, rarely 3-verticillate, sometimes alternate, rarely distichous or tristichous, entire, pinnatifid or pinnate, exstipulate, rarely ericoid or carnose, glabrous or with simple and glandular hairs. Inflorescence usually bracteate, a dense thyrse or pleiothyrse without terminal flower, basimesotonic or acrotonic and pseudodichotomous, sometimes capitate by condensation of the flower-bearing branches; in some genera supernumerary bracts occur below the flowers. Flowers epigynous, bisexual or unisexual, then plants dioecious, polygamous or often gynodioecious, basically pentamerous, but altered by reduction of organs, usually irregularly zygomorphic; calyx rarely regularly 5-lobed, mostly inconspicuous or strongly reduced, or often divided into up to 30 segments, inrolled during anthesis; corolla sympetalous, funnelform, infundibuliform, salverform, rotate or campanulate, tube often saccate at base and nectariferous inside, sometimes spurred, limb with 3 or 5 more or less unequal lobes, often bilabiate; stamens 1–4(5), usually inserted in the corolla tube, alternating with the corolla lobes, anthers tetrasporangiate or rarely bisporangiate; ovary inferior, 3-locular, one locule with 1 pendent ovule, the other two sterile, often very small; style 1, filiform with a two- or three-lobed stigma. Fruit an achene with a persistent, usually accrescent calyx, sterile locules persistent, sometimes inflated, or apparently absent; the calyx mostly developing into a plumose or awned pappus (segments inrolled in flower) or a solid rim, or consisting of 5 regular teeth or fewer or more irregular lobes, sometimes 1–3 stout horns or a small or larger number of spines, sometimes regularly 6-lobed and coroniform, rarely inflated. Mature seed usually without endosperm, rarely endosperm copious; embryo large, straight.


Secondary Xylem Corolla Tube Calyx Lobe Glandular Hair Megaspore Mother Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Formerly at Abteilung f. Spezielle BotanikUniversität UlmUlmGermany
  2. 2.CampinasBrazil

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