Sphenostemonaceae P. Royen & Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 27: 325 (1972).
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 14)


Evergreen shrubs or trees up to 25 high. Leaves alternate, opposite to subopposite, or pseudo-whorled, petiolate, exstipulate (present, minute?), simple, coriaceous, entire to glandular-dentate, penninerved. Inflorescences axillary or terminal racemes, bracteate at base, floral bracts caducous. Flowers hermaphrodite or rarely unisexual, actinomorphic; perianth composed of 4–6 distinct, imbricate, caducous sepals, and 4–6 distinct, imbricate, fleshy, caducous petals, or apetalous; stamens 4–6 or 8–13, distinct, in one whorl, antesepalous, filaments short or almost absent, anthers introrse; disk absent, ovary superior, sessile, bicarpellate, bilocular, fusiform to cylindric, style absent, stigma slightly bipartite, cup-shaped; ovules one per locule, pendant, anatropous, apotropic, unitegmic. Fruit a berry, sometimes asymmetric, crowned by the stigma. Seed 1 or 2, non-arillate; embryo surrounded by chalazal envelope with copious, ruminate endosperm.


Evergreen Shrub Flower Hermaphrodite Floral Bract Unisexual Flower Sclerified Tissue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Airy Shaw, H.K. 1972. Validation of the family name Sphenostemonaceae. Kew Bull. 27: 325–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. APG III (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group) 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161: 105–121.Google Scholar
  3. Baas, P. 1975. Vegetative anatomy and the affinities of Aquifoliaceae, Sphenostemon, Phelline, and Oncotheca. Blumea 22: 311–407.Google Scholar
  4. Bailey, I.W. 1956. The relationship between Sphenostemon of New Caledonia and Nouhuysia of New Guinea. J. Arnold Arbor. 37: 360–365.Google Scholar
  5. Baillon, H. 1875. Sur le nouveau genre Sphenostemon. Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 53.Google Scholar
  6. Baker, E.G. 1921. Sphenostemon comptonii. In: Rendle, A.B. et al., Systematic account of the plants collected in New Caledonia and the Isle of Pines by Prof. R. H. Compton, M.A., in 1914. Part 1, Flowering Plants (Angiospermae). J. Linn Soc., Bot 45: 287, pl. 16.Google Scholar
  7. Bernardi, L. 1964. La position systématique du genre Sphenostemon Baillon sensu van Steenis. Candollea 19: 199–205.Google Scholar
  8. Bremer, K., Backlund, A., Sennblad, B. et al. 2001. A phylogenetic analysis of 100+ genera and 50+ families of euasterids based on morphological and molecular data with notes on possible higher level morphological synapomorphies. Plant Syst. Evol. 229: 137–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cameron, K.M. 2002. On the phylogenetic position of the New Caledonian endemic families Paracryphiaceae, Oncothecaceae, and Strasburgeriaceae: a comparison of molecules and morphology. Bot. Rev. 68: 428–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carr, G.D., McPherson, G. 1986. Chromosome Numbers of New Caledonian plants. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 73: 486–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dickison, W.C., Baas, P. 1977. The morphology and relationships of Paracryphia (Paracryphiaceae). Blumea 23: 417–438.Google Scholar
  12. Doweld, A.B. 2000. Sphenostemonaceae. In: Takhtajan, A., Anatomia seminum comparativa. Rosidae I 5: 118–119. St. Petersburg: Nauka.Google Scholar
  13. Endress, P.K. 2008. The whole and the parts: relationships between floral architecture and floral organ shape, and their repercussions on the interpretation of fragmentary floral fossils. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 101–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Erdtman, G. 1952. Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy. Angiosperms. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.Google Scholar
  15. Gibbs, L.S. 1917. A contribution to the phytogeography and flora of the Arfak mountains. London: Taylor & Francis, p. 136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jérémie, J. 1997. Sphenostemonaceae. In: Morat, P. (ed.) Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie 21: 3–21.Google Scholar
  17. Lobreau, D. 1969. Les limites de l’ordre Celastrales d’après le pollen. Pollen et Spores 11: 499–555.Google Scholar
  18. Lobreau-Callen, D. 1977. Les pollens des Célastrales. Sphenostemonaceae. Mém. Trav. Inst. Montpellier 3: 51–54.Google Scholar
  19. Loesener, T. 1942. Aquifoliaceae. In: Engler, A., Prantl, K., Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 2nd edn, 20b: 6–86.Google Scholar
  20. Magallón, S., Castillo, A. 2009. Angiosperm diversification through time. Amer. J. Bot. 96: 349–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Metcalfe, C.R. 1956. The taxonomic affinities of Sphenostemon in the light of the anatomy of its stem and leaf. Kew Bull. 11: 249–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Savinov, I.A. 2003 Comparative carpology of the genus Sphenostemon (Sphenostemonaceae) in the context of its taxonomy and phylogeny. Bot. Zh. 88: 5–16.Google Scholar
  23. Savolainen, V., Fay, M.F., Albach, D.C. et al. 2000. Phylogeny of the eudicots: a nearly complete familial analysis based on rbcL gene sequences. Kew Bull. 55: 257–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Solnzewa, M.P. 1987. Sphenostemonaceae. In: Batygina, T.B, Yakovlev, M.S. (eds.) Comparative embryology of flowering plants. Davidiaceae-Asteraceae. P. 47. Leningrad: Nauka, p. 391.Google Scholar
  25. Steenis, C.G.G.J. van 1952. Reduction of two endemic monotypic Papuan genera. Act. Bot. Neerl. 1: 94–98.Google Scholar
  26. Steenis, C.G.G.J. van 1955. Some notes on the flora of New Caledonia and reduction of Nouhuysia to Sphenostemon. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 49: 19–23.Google Scholar
  27. Steenis, C.G.G.J. van 1986. Sphenostemonaceae. Flora Males. I, 10: 145–149.Google Scholar
  28. Tank, D.C., Donoghue, M.J. 2010. Phylogeny and phylogenetic nomenclature of the Campanulidae based on an expanded sample of genes and taxa. Syst. Bot. 35: 425–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde StuttgartStuttgartGermany

Personalised recommendations