Sphenocleaceae (Lindley) Baskerville, Affin. Pl.: 110 (1839), nom. cons.Sphenocleoideae Lindley (1836).Sphenocleeae A. Gray (1878).
  • T. G. LammersEmail author
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 14)


Erect annual glabrous herbs, up to 1.5 m tall. Roots fibrous. Stems fistulose, fleshy or spongy, freely branching. Leaves alternate, simple, exstipulate, petiolate; lamina pinnately veined, margin entire. Inflorescence a dense terminal pedunculate acropetal conico-cylindric spike. Flowers small, tetracyclic, perfect, radially symmetrical, subtended by an inconspicuous spathulate bract and a pair of linear bracteoles. Calyx synsepalous, adnate to the ovary, forming a hypanthium; lobes 5, imbricate, persistent. Corolla sympetalous, radially symmetric, white or pale yellow, urceolate-campanulate, caducous; lobes 5, imbricate. Stamens 5, alternating with the corolla lobes; filaments distinct, adnate to the middle of the corolla tube, slightly dilated at base; anthers tetrasporangiate, dithecal, basifixed, distinct. Nectary 0. Gynoecium syncarpous, 2-locular; ovary half-inferior; ovules numerous; placentae axile, spongy; style simple, short or almost wanting; stigma capitate. Fruit a circumscissile capsule, enclosed by the accrescent calyx lobes. Seeds small, oblong, yellowish brown, shining, numerous, exarillate, testa striate; embryo straight; endosperm very scanty or lacking.


Calcium Oxalate Corolla Tube Corolla Lobe Stigma Capitate Sclerenchyma Fiber 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Airy Shaw, H.K. 1948. Sphenocleaceae. In: van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.) Flora Males. I, 4(1). Djakarta: Noordhoff-Kolff, pp. 27–28.Google Scholar
  2. Airy Shaw, H.K. 1973. A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns, ed. 8. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. d’Almeida, J.F.R. 1934. On the development of secondary aerating tissues in the stem of Sphenoclea zeylanica Gaertn. Proc. Indian Sci. Congr. Assoc. 1934: 314.Google Scholar
  4. Bentham, G. 1876. Campanulaceae. In: Bentham, G., Hooker, J.D., Genera plantarum 2: 541–564. London: Reeve.Google Scholar
  5. Cosner, M.E., Jansen, R.K., Lammers, T.G. 1994. Phylogenetic relationships in the Campanulales based on rbcL sequences. Plant Syst. Evol. 190: 79–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cronquist, A. 1981. An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Dahlgren, R.M.T. 1975. A system of classification of the angiosperms to be used to demonstrate the distribution of characters. Bot. Not. 128: 119–147.Google Scholar
  8. Dahlgren, R.M.T. 1980. A revised system of classification of the angiosperms. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 80: 91–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dunbar, A. 1975. On pollen of Campanulaceae and related families with special reference to the surface ultrastructure II. Campanulaceae subfam. Cyphioideae and subfam. Lobelioideae; Goodeniaceae; Sphenocleaceae. Bot. Not. 128: 102–118.Google Scholar
  10. Erbar, C. 1995. On the floral development of Sphenoclea zeylanica (Sphenocleaceae, Campanulales) – SEM investigations on herbarium material. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 117: 469–493.Google Scholar
  11. Gupta, D.P. 1959. Vascular anatomy of the flower of Sphenoclea zeylanica Gaertn. and some other related species. Proc. Natl. Inst. Sci. India 25B: 55–64.Google Scholar
  12. Gustafsson, M.H.G., Bremer, K. 1995. Morphology and phylogenetic interrelationships of the Asteraceae, Calyceraceae, Campanulaceae, Goodeniaceae, and related families (Asterales). Amer. J. Bot. 82: 250–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hiraia, N., Sakashita, S., Sano, T., Inoue, T., Ohigashi, H., Premasthira, C., Asakawa, Y., Harada, J., Fujii, Y. 2000. Allelochemicals of the tropical weed Sphenoclea zeylanica. Phytochemistry 55: 131–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hutchinson, J. 1973. The families of flowering plants, ed. 3. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  15. Kausik, S.B., Subramanyam, K. 1946. A contribution to the life-history of Sphenoclea zeylanica Gaertn. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 23B: 274–280.Google Scholar
  16. Lammers, T.G. 1992. Circumscription and phylogeny of the Campanulales. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79: 388–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mohandas, C., Rao, Y.S., Sahu, S.C. 1981. Cultural control of rice root nematodes (Hirschmanniella spp.) with Sphenoclea zeylanica. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., Animal Sci. 90: 373–376.Google Scholar
  18. Monod, T. 1980. A propos du Sphenoclea zeylanica (Sphenocleaceae). Adansonia II, 20: 147–164.Google Scholar
  19. Porembski, S., Koch, M. 1999. Inulin occurrence in Sphenoclea (Sphenocleaceae). Plant Biol. 1: 288–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rosatti, T.J. 1986. The genera of Sphenocleaceae and Campanulaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arb. 67: 1–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Schönland, S. 1889. Campanulaceae. In: Natürl. Pflanzenfamilien IV(5). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, pp. 40–70.Google Scholar
  22. Soltis, D.E., Smith, S.A., Cellinese, N., Wurdack, K.J., Tank, D.C., Brockington, S.F., Refulio-Rodriguez, N.F., Walker, J.B., Moore, M.J., Carlsward, B.S., Bell, C.D., Latvis, M., Crawley, S., Black, C., Diouf, D., Xi, Z.X., Rushworth, C.A., Gitzendanner, M.A., Sytsma, K.J., Qiu, Y.L., Hilu, K.W., Davis, C.C., Sanderson, M.J., Beaman, R.S., Olmstead, R.G., Judd, W.S., Donoghue, M.J., Soltis, P.S. 2011. Angiosperm phylogeny: 17 genes, 640 taxa. Amer. J. Bot. 98: 704–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Subramanyam, K. 1950. A contribution to our knowledge of the systematic position of the Sphenocleaceae. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 31(B): 60–65.Google Scholar
  24. Takhtajan, A. 1980. Outline of the classification of flowering plants (Magnoliophyta). Bot. Rev. 46: 225–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Takhtajan, A. 1981. Plant Life, vol. 5(2). Moskau: Proswjestschenije (in Russian).Google Scholar
  26. Takhtajan, A. 1997. Diversity and classification of flowering plants. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Thorne, R.F. 1976. A phylogenetic classification of the Angiospermae. In: Hecht, M.K., Steere, W.C., Wallace, B. (eds.) Evolutionary Biology 9. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 35–106.Google Scholar
  28. Thorne, R.F. 1992. Classification and geography of the flowering plants. Bot. Rev. 58: 225–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wagenitz, G. 1964. Reihe Campanulales. In: Melchior, H. (ed.) A. Engler’s Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 12, 2. Berlin: Bornträger, pp. 478–497.Google Scholar
  30. Wilbur, R.L. 1976. Flora of Panama, Campanulaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63: 593–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology and MicrobiologyUniversity of Wisconsin OshkoshOshkoshUSA

Personalised recommendations