Icacinaceae (Benth.) Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. II, 8:174 (1851), nom. cons.
  • M. J. PotgieterEmail author
  • R. Duno
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 14)


Trees, shrubs or lianas, indumentum generally present. Large tubers rarely present. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple, rarely lobed, exstipulate; petioles canaliculate; domatia present or absent, when present pits or pockets; blades coriaceous to sub-coriaceous, rarely membranaceous; margins entire or dentate, slightly revolute; penninerved, rarely palmatinerved. Inflorescences axillary, terminal or cauliflorous, generally cymose or racemose, with one to many bracts, rarely ebracteate; pedicels generally articulated with the flowers. Flowers hypogynous, commonly actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic; bisexual or unisexual, at least functionally; flowers mostly pentamerous, but in Polycephalium and some Pyrenacantha 3-merous, in Polyporandra up to 7-merous; sepals (3–)5(6), mostly connate below to a varying degree and 4–6-lobed or -toothed, rarely free, imbricate or valvate, fleshy, generally glabrous; petals 4–6, free or united below to a varying degree, pubescent or glabrous, valvate, rarely subimbricate, generally reflexed; apex inflexed, rarely extended into an appendage; stamens 4–6, alternating with the petals; filaments filiform, fleshy, or sometimes broad and flattened; anthers 2(−4)-locular, dorsi- or basifixed, longitudinally dehiscent, introrse, less often latrorse or more or less extrorse; connective sometimes laterally expanded or extended into an appendage; staminodes sometimes present in pistillate flowers; disk present or absent, either annular or cup-like, free or adnate to the ovary, sometimes reduced to a unilateral fleshy scale; pistil pubescent or glabrous, 1(2–3)-locular, rarely pubescent inside, rudimentary in staminate flowers; ovules 2 per locule, pendant from near the apex, collateral or superposed, anatropous, apotropous, unitegmic; style simple, very rarely 2 or 3 stylodia (Casimirella); stigma capitate, punctiform, subcapitate or peltate, entire, 2–5-lobed or crenate or papillose. Fruit a drupe, ovoid, oblong, globose or rarely flattened and with fleshy appendage on one side; endocarp thin and crustaceous to thick and woody, sometimes spongious or fibrous, often veined or ribbed longitudinally. Seed 1, exarillate; embryo commonly minute; endosperm copious, usually non-ruminate.


Staminate Flower Pistillate Flower Margin Entire Angiosperm Phylogeny Group Ovary Conical 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiodiversityUniversity of LimpopoPolokwaneSouth Africa
  2. 2.Centro de Investigación Científica de YucatánMeridaMexico

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