Adoxaceae E. Mey., Preuss. Pfl.-Gatt. 198 (1839) (Adoxeae), nom. cons.Viburnaceae Raf. (1820) (Viburnidia).Sambucaceae Batsch ex Borkh. (1797) (Sambuci).
  • A. BacklundEmail author
  • V. Bittrich
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 14)


Perennial herbs, small to moderately sized shrubs, or small trees, buds sometimes perulate; plants glabrous or with indumentum of unicellular or multicellular stellate (rarely lepidote) hairs; extrafloral nectaries sometimes present in various parts of the plants. Leaves opposite (very rarely 3-verticillate), pinnately veined and petiolate, simple, ternate, biternate, pinnatisect or pinnate, rarely bipinnate; leaf margin entire or, more often, serrate; pseudostipules occasionally present. Flowers in sometimes complex monotelic inflorescences, forming corymbs (sometimes some flowers sterile and showy), pseudo-umbels, heads, racemes, or few-flowered cymes in interrupted spikes. Flowers (with very few exceptions) bisexual, ± actinomorphic, semi-epigynous to epigynous; sepals 2–5, ± connate , lobes small, 1-traced, persistent; petals 3–5(6), connate, with corolla tube sometimes very short, lobes imbricate or valvate; stamens antesepalous, adnate to the corolla and isomerous with the petals, though sometimes split to the filament base or nearly so, giving the appearance of twice the number of unithecal stamens; anthers basifixed or dorsifixed, dithecal, tetrasporangiate; ovary syncarpous with 2–5 carpels, uni- or plurilocular, with some locules occasionally sterile; stylodia short or absent; stigma capitate or lobed, then lobes isomerous with locule number; one fertile ovule per locule, sometimes additionally some vestigial ovules present, anatropous, bitegmic, tenui- or weakly crassinucellate; nectary of different types or absent. Fruit a drupe with one single pyrene in Viburnum or with few separable pyrenes in Adoxeae and Sambucus. Endosperm oily, copious, cellular.


Perennial Herb Corolla Lobe Extrafloral Nectary Floral Anatomy Stigma Capitate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Agardh, J.G. 1858. Theoria systematis plantarum; accedit familiarum phanerogamarum. Lund: C.W.K. Gleerup.Google Scholar
  2. APG (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group) 1998. An ordinal classification of flowering plants. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: 531–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. APG III. 2009. An update of the angiosperm phylogeny group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161: 105–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Backlund, A. 1996. Phylogeny of the Dipsacales. Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology 243. Doctoral thesis, Department of Systematic Botany, Uppsala University.Google Scholar
  5. Backlund, A., Bremer, B. 1997. Phylogeny of the Asteridae s.str based on rbcL sequences, with particular reference to the Dipsacales. Plant Syst. Evol. 207: 225–254.Google Scholar
  6. Bate-Smith, E.C. 1961. The phenolic constituents of plants and their taxonomic significance 1. Dicotyledons. J. Linn. Soc. 58: 95–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benko-Iseppon, A.M., Morawetz, W. 1993. Cold-induced chromosome regions and karyosystematics in Sambucus and Viburnum. Bot. Acta 106: 183–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benko-Iseppon, A.M., Morawetz, W. 2000. Viburnales: cytological features and a new circumscription. Taxon 49: 5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bentham, G., Hooker, J.D. 1873. Genera Plantarum. London: Lovell Reeve & Co.Google Scholar
  10. Bolli, R. 1994. Revision of the Genus Sambucus. Dissertationes Botanicae 223: 1–227.Google Scholar
  11. Bremer, K., Backlund, A., Sennblad, B., Swenson, U., Andreasen, K., Hjertson, M., Lundberg, J., Backlund, M., Bremer, B. 2001. A phylogenetic analysis of 100+ genera and 50+ families of euasterids based on morphological and molecular data. Plant Syst. Evol. 229: 137–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Candolle, A.P. de 1830. Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis. Paris: Treuttel & Würtz.Google Scholar
  13. Carlquist, S. 1992. Wood anatomy of sympetalous dicotyledon families: A summary, with comments on systematic relationships and evolution of the woody habit. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79: 303–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chandler, M.E.J. 1961. The Lower Tertiary Floras of Southern England. London: The Trustees of the British Museum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Charlebois, D., Byers, P., Finn, C.E., Thomas, A.L. 2010. Elderberry: botany, horticulture, potential. Horticult. Rev. 37: 213–280.Google Scholar
  16. Clement, W.L., Donoghue, M.J. 2011. Dissolution of Viburnum section Megalotinus (Adoxaceae) of southeast Asia and its implications for morphological evolution and biogeography. Int. J. Plant Sci. 172: 559–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dahlgren, R. 1983. General aspects of angiosperm evolution and macrosystematics. Nord. J. Bot. 3: 119–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dahlgren, G. 1991. Steps toward a natural system of the dicotyledons: Embryological characters. Aliso 13: 107–166.Google Scholar
  19. Donoghue, M.J. 1981. Growth patterns in woody plants with examples from the genus Viburnum. Arnoldia 41: 2–23.Google Scholar
  20. Donoghue, M.J. 1983. A preliminary analysis of phylogenetic relationships in Viburnum (Caprifoliaceae s.l.). Syst. Bot. 8: 45–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Donoghue, M.J. 1985. Pollen diversity and exine evolution in Viburnum and the Caprifoliaceae sensu lato. J. Arnold Arboretum 66: 421–469.Google Scholar
  22. Donoghue, M.J., Olmstead, R.G., Smith, J.F., Palmer, J.D. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships of Dipsacales based on rbcL sequences. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79: 333–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Donoghue, M.J., Eriksson, T., Reeves, P.A., Olmstead, R.G. 2001. Phylogeny and phylogenetic taxonomy of Dipsacales, with special reference to Sinadoxa and Tetradoxa (Adoxaceae). Harvard Pap. Bot. 6: 459–479.Google Scholar
  24. Drude, O. 1884. Über die verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen von Adoxa zu Chrysosplenium und Panax. Bot. Jahrb. 5: 441–447.Google Scholar
  25. Eames, A.J. 1961. Morphology of the Angiosperms. New York: McGraw-Hill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Egolf, D.R. 1962. A cytological study of the genus Viburnum. J. Arnold Arboretum 43: 132–172.Google Scholar
  27. Eichinger, A. 1907. Vergleichende Entwicklungsgeschichte von Adoxa und Chrysosplenium. Mitt. bayr. bot. Ges., Bd. II, Nr. 5: 65–74, Nr. 6: 81–93.Google Scholar
  28. Erbar, C. 1994. Contributions to the affinities of Adoxa from the viewpoint of floral development. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 116(2): 259–282.Google Scholar
  29. Erdtman, G. 1952. Pollen Morphology and plant taxonomy. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.Google Scholar
  30. Eriksson, T., Donoghue, M.J. 1997. Phylogenetic analyses of Sambucus and Adoxa (Adoxoideae, Adoxaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences and preliminary morphological data. Syst. Bot. 22: 555–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fritsch, K. 1891. Adoxaceae. In: Engler, A., Prantl, K. (eds.) Die natürlichen Pflanzenfam. IV, 4. Leipzig: W. Engelmann, pp. 170–171.Google Scholar
  32. Gustafsson, M.G.H., Backlund, A., Bremer, B. 1996. Phylogeny of the Asterales sensu lato based on rbcL sequences with particular reference to the Goodeniaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 199: 217–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hably, L., Szakály, M. 1989. The Catalogue of Leaf-Fossil types preserved in Hungary. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.Google Scholar
  34. Hallier, H. 1905. Provisional scheme of the natural (phylogenetic) system of flowering plants. New Phytol. 4: 151–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hara, H. 1983. A revision of Caprifoliaceae of Japan with reference to allied plants in other districts and the Adoxaceae. Tokyo: Academia Scientific Book.Google Scholar
  36. Harborne, J.B., Williams, C.A. 1971. 6-Hydroxyluteolin & scutellarein as phyletic markers in higher plants. Phytochemistry 10: 369–378.Google Scholar
  37. Hegnauer, R. 1969. Chemical evidence for the classification of some plant taxa. In: Harborn J.B., Swain, T. (eds.) Perspectives in phytochemistry. London, New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  38. Hillebrand, G.R., Fairbrothers, D.E. 1970. Serological investigation of the systematic position of the Caprifoliaceae. I. Correspondence with selected Rubiaceae and Cornaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 57: 810–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Holmes, D.S. 2005. Sexual reproduction in British populations of Adoxa moschatellina L. Watsonia 25: 265–273.Google Scholar
  40. Hutchinson, J. 1973. The families of flowering plants. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  41. Jacobs, B., Donoghue, M.J., Bouman, F., Huysmans, S., Smets, E. 2008. Evolution and phylogenetic importance of endocarp and seed characters in Viburnum (Adoxaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 169: 409–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jacobs, B., Huysmans, S., Smets, E. 2010. Evolution and systematic value of fruit and seed characters in Adoxaceae (Dipsacales). Taxon 59: 850–866.Google Scholar
  43. Jensen, S.R., Nielsen, B.J., Dahlgren, R. 1975. Iridoid compounds, their occurrence and systematic importance in the angiosperms. Bot. Not. 128: 148–180.Google Scholar
  44. Jin, B., Wang, L., Wang, J., Teng, N.J., He, X.D., Mu, X.J., Wang, Y.L. 2010. The structure and roles of sterile flowers in Viburnum macrocephalum f. keteleeri (Adoxaceae). Plant Biol. 12: 853–862.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Jussieu, A.-L. de 1789. Genera Plantarum Secundum Ordines Naturales Disposita, Juxta Methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi Exaratam, Anno 1774. Paris: Vidaum Herissant.Google Scholar
  46. Kamelina, O.P. 1980. Sravnitelnaja embriologia semejstv Dipsacaceae i Morinaceae. Leningrad (St. Petersburg): Nauka.Google Scholar
  47. Kern, J.H., van Steenis, C.G.G.J. 1951. Caprifoliaceae. In: van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.) Flora Males. I, 4. Batavia: Noordhoff-Kolff, pp. 175–194.Google Scholar
  48. Kilpper, K. 1969. Verzeichnis der im mittleren und unteren Rheinland gefundenen Großreste von Tertiärpflanzen (von 1821 bis 1968). Essen: Ruhrland- und Heimatsmuseum der Stadt Essen.Google Scholar
  49. Lagerberg, T. 1904. Organografiska Studier öfver Adoxa Moschatellina L. Arkiv Botanik vol. 3.Google Scholar
  50. Lagerberg, T. 1909. Studien über die Entwicklungsgeschichte und systematische Stellung von Adoxa moschatellina L. Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., 2nd ser. 44: 1–86.Google Scholar
  51. Metcalfe, C.R., Chalk, L. 1950. Anatomy of the dicotyledons. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  52. Moissl, E. 1941. Vergleichende embryologische Studien über die Familie der Caprifoliaceae. Österr. Bot Z. 90: 153–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Müller, C.A. 1885. Caprifoliaceae. In: Martius, C.F. et al. (eds.) Flora brasiliensis, vol. 6(4): 333–338, t. 99. Leipzig: F. Fleischer.Google Scholar
  54. Müller-Schneider, P. 1967. Zur Verbreitungsbiologie des Moschuskrautes (Adoxa moschatellina). Vegetatio Acta Bot. 15: 27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Neubauer, H.F. 1977. Morphologische Beobachtungen an Sämlingen von Sambucus nigra. Phyton (Austria) 18: 57–69.Google Scholar
  56. Novák, T. 1904. Über den Blütenbau von Adoxa moschatellina. Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 54: 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. O’Dowd, D.J., Pemberton, R. 1994. Leaf domatia in Korean plants: floristics, frequency, and biogeography. Vegetatio 114: 137–148.Google Scholar
  58. Olmstead, R.G., Bremer, B., Scott, K.M., Palmer, J.D. 1993. A parsimony analysis of the Asteridae sensu lato based on rbcL sequences. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 700–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Payer, J.-B. 1857. Traité d’organogénie comparé de la fleur. Paris: Masson.Google Scholar
  60. Peruzzi, L., Passalacqua, N.G. 2006. On a new subspecies of Adoxa moschatellina (Adoxaceae), apoendemic in Calabria (S Italy). Nord. J. Bot. 24: 249–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Plouvier, V. 1992 [1993]. Chemotaxonomy of the Caprifoliaceae and relationship with some allied families. Adansonia 14: 461–472.Google Scholar
  62. Puff, C., Buchner, R., Sugau, J.B. 1997. Viburnum clemensae (Caprifoliaceae s.l.), an unusual dioecious species from the high mountains of Sabah (Borneo). Sandakania 9: 35–54.Google Scholar
  63. Reidt, G., Leins, P. 1994. Das Initialstadium der sympetalen Krone bei Sambucus racemosa L. und Viburnum farreri Stearn. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 116: 1–9.Google Scholar
  64. Reitsma, T.J., Reuvers, A.A.M.C. 1975. Adoxaceae. Rev. Palaebot. Palynol. 19: 71–74.Google Scholar
  65. Roels, P., Smets, E. 1994. A comparative floral ontogenetical study between Adoxa moschatellina and Sambucus ebulus. Belgian J. Bot. 127: 235–254.Google Scholar
  66. Ronse DeCraene, L.-P., Roels, P., Smets, E., Backlund, A. 1998. The floral development and floral anatomy of Chrysosplenium alternifolium, an unusual member of the Saxifragaceae. J. Plant Res. 111: 573–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sax, K., Kribs, D.A. 1930. Chromosomes and phylogeny in Caprifoliaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 11: 147–153.Google Scholar
  68. Savile, D.B.O. 1979. Fungi as aids in higher plant classification. Bot. Rev. 45: 377–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Savolainen, V., Fay, M.F., Albach, D.C., Backlund, A., van der Bank, M., Cameron, K.M., Johnson, S.A., Lledó, M.D., Pintaud, J.-C., Powell, M., Sheahan, M.C., Soltis, D.E., Soltis, P.S., Weston, P., Whitten, W.M., Wurdack, K.J., Chase, M.W. 2000. Phylogeny of the eudicots: a nearly complete familial analysis based on rbcL gene sequences. Kew Bull. 55: 257–309.Google Scholar
  70. Schwerin, F.G. von 1909. Monographie der Gattung Sambucus. Mitt. Deutsch Dendrol. Ges. 18: 1–56.Google Scholar
  71. Shi-you, L., Zhu-hua, N. 1987. Studies on the family Adoxaceae. Bull. Bot. Res. 7: 93–109.Google Scholar
  72. Solereder, H. 1899. Systematische Anatomie der Dicotyledonen. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke.Google Scholar
  73. Sprague, T.A. 1927. The morphology and taxonomic position of the Adoxaceae. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 47: 471–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sturm, C. 1910. Monographische Studien über Adoxa Moschatellina L. (Mitteilungen aus dem Botanischen Museum der Universität Zürich 51). Vierteljahresschr. Naturf. Ges. Zürich 54: 391–462.Google Scholar
  75. Takhtajan, A. 1987. Systema Magnoliophytorum. St. Petersburg (Leningrad): Officina Editoria NAUKA, Sectio Leninopolitana.Google Scholar
  76. Takhtajan, A. 1997. Diversity and classification of flowering plants. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Troll, W., Weberling, F. 1966. Die Infloreszenzen der Caprifoliaceen und ihre systematische Bedeutung. Abh. Akad. Wiss. Lit. Mainz. Math. Naturw. Kl. 4: 455–605.Google Scholar
  78. Uemura, K. 1988. Late Miocene Floras in Northeast Honshu, Japan. Tokyo: National Science Museum.Google Scholar
  79. Vogel, S. 1997. Remarkable nectaries: structure, ecology, organophyletic perspectives. I. Substitutive nectaries. Flora 192: 305–333.Google Scholar
  80. Weberling, F. 1957. Morphologische Untersuchungen zur Systematik der Caprifoliaceen. Abh. Math.-Naturwissensch. Kl. Akad. Wissensch. Lit. Mainz 1957: 1–50.Google Scholar
  81. Weyland in Wuppertal-Elberfeld, H. 1938. III. Zweite Ergänzungen und Berichtigungen zur Flora der Blätterkohle und des Polierschiefers von Rott im Siebengebirge. Köln: Geologisch-Mineralogischen Institut der Universität Köln.Google Scholar
  82. Wilkinson, A.M. 1948a. Floral anatomy and morphology of some species of the tribes Linnaeeae and Sambuceae of the Caprifoliaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 35: 365–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wilkinson, A.M. 1948b. Floral anatomy and morphology of the genus Viburnum. Amer. J. Bot. 35: 455–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wilkinson, A.M. 1949. Floral anatomy and morphology of Triosteum and of the Caprifoliaceae in general. Amer. J. Bot. 36: 481–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Willaman, J.J., Li, H.-L. 1970. Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids. Lloydia 33: 1–286.Google Scholar
  86. Winkworth, R.C., Donoghue, M.J. 2005. Viburnum phylogeny based on combined molecular data: implications for taxonomy and biogeography. Amer. J. Bot. 92: 653–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wu, C.-Y., Zhang, T.B. 1981. Another new genus of Adoxaceae, with special references on the infrafamiliar evolution and the systematic position of the family. Acta Bot. Yunnanica 3: 383–388.Google Scholar
  88. Wu, C.-Y., Wu, Z.-L., Huang, R.-F. 1981. Sinadoxa C.Y. Wu, Z.L. Wu, et R.F. Huang, genus novum familiae Adoxacearum. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 19: 203–210.Google Scholar
  89. Wydler, H. 1850. Über Adoxa moschatellina. Flora N.F. 7: 433–437.Google Scholar
  90. Yang, Q., Hong, D.Y., Malécot, V., Boufford, D.E. 2011. Adoxaceae. In: Wu, C.Y. et al. (eds.) Flora of China 19: 570–614.Google Scholar
  91. Zobel, A.M. 1986. Ontogenesis of tannin-containing coenocytes in Sambucus racemosa L. III. The mature coenocyte. Ann. Bot. 58: 849–858.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pharmacognosy, Dept. of Medicinal ChemistryUppsala University, BMC - Biomedical CenterUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.CampinasBrazil

Personalised recommendations