Heliotropiaceae Schrad., Commentat. Soc. Regiae Sci. Gott. Recent. 4: 192 (1819), nom. cons.
  • N. DianeEmail author
  • H. H. Hilger
  • H. Förther
  • M. Weigend
  • F. Luebert
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 14)


Annual or perennial herbs, subshrubs, shrubs, lianas or small trees; hermaphrodite or rarely unisexual and dioecious; indumentum of simple, unicellular, eglandular trichomes, sometimes with glandular cells. Leaves alternate, petiolate or sessile, exstipulate; lamina linear to suborbicular, margin usually entire, very rarely crenate or dentate, often revolute; apex mostly acute or acuminate; base cuneate or decurrent. Inflorescences thyrsoids, terminal or axillary; partial inflorescences scorpioid cymes. Flowers perfect, rarely unisexual, actinomorphic, chasmogamous, sessile or shortly pedicellate; calyx tube usually short, mostly campanulate, calyx lobes often unequal, linear to ovate, glabrous to densely hairy, mostly persistent after anthesis; corolla sympetalous, with subcircular to linear lobes; androecium haplostemonous, stamens antesepalous and borne on corolla tube, usually included, filaments short, linear; anthers dorsifixed, usually linear, tetrasporangiate; gynoecium superior, syncarpous, bicarpellate, usually 4-loculate with one ovule in each locule; ovule anatropous to hemitropous, unitegmic, tenuinucellate; style terminal with a conical stigmatic head with a basal ring-shaped stigma and a sterile, sometimes two-lobed apex; nectary disk at the base of the ovary. Fruit dry or fleshy, usually 4-seeded, rarely 1–2-seeded, falling apart into 1–4 mericarpids with 1–2 seeds each. Embryo minute, straight to curved, embedded in thin endosperm, cotyledons linear to ovoid.


Glandular Trichome Perennial Herb Corolla Tube Calcium Oxalate Crystal Corolla Lobe 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Diane
    • 1
    Email author
  • H. H. Hilger
    • 2
  • H. Förther
    • 3
  • M. Weigend
    • 4
  • F. Luebert
    • 4
  1. 1.BerlinGermany
  2. 2.Systematische Botanik und Pflanzengeographie, Institut für BiologieFreie Universität BerlinBerlinGermany
  3. 3.PullachGermany
  4. 4.Nees-Institut für Biodiversität der PflanzenRheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-UniversitätBonnGermany

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