Escalloniaceae R. Br. ex Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 35, 37 (1829), nom. cons.
  • J. LundbergEmail author
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 14)


Subshrubs (Valdivia), shrubs or small trees. Leaves alternate, exstipulate, simple, entire, crenulate, or serrate to biserrate. Inflorescence axillary or terminal racemes, sometimes panicles, many-flowered (up to 800 flowers in some Escallonia), few-flowered (Anopterus, Forgesia, Valdivia and some Escallonia), or flowers solitary (some Escallonia). Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, actinomorphic, hypogynous to epigynous; sepals fused, 5(−9), persistent; petals free, 5(−9), imbricate, rarely valvate; nectary disk present, epigynous; stamens 5(−9), alternipetalous; filaments free; anthers basifixed or versatile, bisporangiate, introrse to extrorse; ovary of 2(−5) united carpels, inferior to superior, 1–3(−5)-locular, placentation parietal; ovules numerous to few; styles simple or two more or less separate stylodia (Anopterus, Forgesia); stigma capitate, 2–5-lobed. Fruits capsular, septicidal, opening from the top, rarely from the base (Escallonia), or indehiscent (Valdivia), with many to few seeds.


Ursolic Acid Calyx Tube Stigma Capitate Serrate Leaf Nectar Disk 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Agababyan, V.S. 1961. Materialy k palinosistematicheskoma izucheniya semeistva Saxifragaceae s.l. Izv. Akad. Nauk Armyansk. S.S.R., Biol. Nauki 14: 45–61.Google Scholar
  2. Agababyan, V.S. 1964. Evolyutsia pyltsy v poryadkak Cunoniales i Saxifragales v svyazi s nekotoymi voprosami ikh sistematiki i filogenii. Izv. Akad. Nauk Armyansk. S.S.R., Biol. Nauki 17: 59–75.Google Scholar
  3. Al-Shammary, K.I.A. 1991. Systematic studies of the Saxifragaceae s.l., chiefly from the southern hemisphere. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.Google Scholar
  4. Al-Shammary, K.I.A., Gornall, R.J. 1994. Trichome anatomy of the Saxifragaceae s.l. from the southern hemisphere. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 114: 99–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III (AGP III) 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161: 105–121.Google Scholar
  6. Bensel, C.R., Palser, B.F. 1975. Floral anatomy in the Saxifragaceae sensu lato. III. Kirengeshomoideae, Hydrangeoideae and Escallonioideae. Amer. J. Bot. 62: 676–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Engler, A. 1928. Saxifragaceae. In: Natürl. Pflanzenfam., 2nd edn, 18a: 74–226. Leipzig: W. Engelmann.Google Scholar
  8. Erdtman, G. 1952. Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. Angiosperms. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.Google Scholar
  9. Goodson, J.A. 1938. The occurrence of ursolic acid in Escallonia tortuosa. Conversion of ursolic acid into alpha-amyrin. J. Chem. Soc. 1938: 999–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gornall, R.J., Al-Shammary, K.I.A., Gregory, M. 1998. Escalloniaceae. In: Cutler, D.F., Gregory, M. (eds.) Anatomy of the Dicotyledons. Ed. 2. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 41–86.Google Scholar
  11. Gunckel, H. 1931. Contribución al conocimiento de la flora valdiviana (quinta comunicación) Valdivia gayana Rémy. Revista Univ. (Santiago) 16: 510–517.Google Scholar
  12. Gustafsson, M.H.G. 1995. Petal venation in the Asterales and related orders. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 118: 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hegnauer, R. 1990. Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen. Vol. 9. Basel: Birkhäuser.Google Scholar
  14. Hideux, M.J., Ferguson, I.K. 1976. The stereostructure of the exine and its evolutionary significance in Saxifragaceae sensu lato. In: Ferguson, I.K., Muller, J. (eds.) The evolutionary significance of the exine. Linnean Society Symposium Series, no. 1. London: Academic Press, pp. 327–377.Google Scholar
  15. Hils, M.H. 1985. Comparative anatomy and systematics of twelve woody Australasian genera of the Saxifragaceae. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  16. Holle, G. 1893. Beiträge zur Anatomie der Saxifragaceen und deren systematische Verwerthung. Bot. Centralbl. 53: 1–9, 33–41, 65–70, 97–102, 129–136, 161–169, 209–222.Google Scholar
  17. Jönsson, B. 1881. Om embryosäckens utveckling hos Angiospermerna. Acta Univ. Lund 16: 1–88.Google Scholar
  18. Kamelina, O.P. 1984. K embriologii roda Escallonia (Escalloniaceae). Bot. Zhurn. 69: 1304–1316.Google Scholar
  19. Kamelina, O.P. 1988. Sporo-, gametogenesis and fertilization of Escallonia and Brexia with comments on their taxonomy. In: Cresti, M., Gori, P., Pacini, E. (eds.) Sexual reproduction in higher plants. Berlin: Springer, pp. 431–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Krach, E. 1976. Samenanatomie der Rosifloren I. Die Samen der Saxifragaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 97: 1–60.Google Scholar
  21. Krach, E. 1977. Seed characters in and affinities among the Saxifragineae. Plant Syst. Evol., Suppl. 1: 141–153.Google Scholar
  22. Lundberg, J. 2001. Phylogenetic studies in the Euasterids II with particular reference to Asterales and Escalloniaceae. Ph.D. Thesis, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.Google Scholar
  23. Nemirovich-Danchenko, E.N. (ed.) 2000. Sravnitel’naja anatomija semjan. Vol. 6. Dvudol’nye. Rosidae II. St. Petersburg: Academia Scientiarum Rossica, Institutum Botanicum Nomine V. L. Komarovii NAUKA.Google Scholar
  24. Nemirovich-Danchenko, E.N., Lobova, T.A. 1998. Stroenie semennoy kozhury nekotorykh predstaviteley poryadka Hydrangeales. Bot. Zhurn. 83: 1–9.Google Scholar
  25. Pastre, A., Pons, A. 1973. Quelques aspects de la systématique des Saxifragacées à la lumière des données de la palynologie. Pollen Spores 15: 117–133.Google Scholar
  26. Philipson, W.R. 1967. Griselinia Forst. fil. – anomaly or link. New Zealand J. Bot. 5: 134–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Plouvier, V. 1956. Sur la présence d’aspéruloside chez les Escallonia et de dulcitol chez le Brexia madagascariensis Thou. (Saxifragacées). Compt. Rend. Hebd. Séan. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 242: 1643–1645.Google Scholar
  28. Ramamonjiarisoa, B.A. 1980. Comparative anatomy and systematics of African and Malagasy woody Saxifragaceae sensu lato. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  29. Ramírez, C., Sempe, J. 1981. Valdivia gayana als Beispiel einer im subantarktischen Bereich von Südamerika endemischen Pflanzenart. Oberhess. Naturwiss. Z. 46: 75–80.Google Scholar
  30. Sede, S.M., Dürnhöfer, S.I., Morello, S., Zapata, F. 2013. Phylogeny of Escallonia (Escalloniaceae) based on plastid DNA sequence data. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 173: 442–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Scott, A. J. 1997. 84. Escalloniacées. In: Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Guého, J., Marais, W. (eds.) Flore des Mascareignes La Réunion, Maurice, Rodrigues. The Sugar Industry Research Institute, Mauritius.Google Scholar
  32. Sleumer, H. 1968. Die Gattung Escallonia (Saxifragaceae). Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk. 58(2): 1–146.Google Scholar
  33. Stern, W.L. 1974. Comparative anatomy and systematics of woody Saxifragaceae. Escallonia. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 68: 1–20.Google Scholar
  34. Straka, H., Friedrich, B. 1988. Familien 65 bis 97. In: Straka, H. (ed.) Palynologica Madagassica et Mascarenica. Stuttgart: Steiner-Verl. Wiesbaden, pp. 1–117.Google Scholar
  35. Tank, D.C., Donoghue, M.J. 2010. Phylogeny and phylogenetic nomenclature of the Campanulidae based on an expanded sample of genes and taxa. Syst. Bot. 35: 425–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tomassini, L., Foddai, S., Nicoletti, M., Giuffra, S.E., Garcia, M.R., Bravo, F.H. 1993. Iridoid glycosides from Escallonia species. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 21: 621–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Troncoso, A.A., San Martin, A.J. 1999. Presencia del genero Escallonia (Magnoliopsida, Escalloniaceae) en el terciario de Chile central. Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. 48: 29–36.Google Scholar
  38. Valdivia, C.E., Niemeyer, H.M. 2006. Do floral syndromes predict specialisation in plant pollination systems? Assessment of diurnal and nocturnal pollination of Escallonia myrtoidea. New Zealand J. Bot. 44: 135–141.Google Scholar
  39. Wakabayashi, M. 1970. On the affinity in Saxifragaceae s. lato with special reference to the pollen morphology. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 24: 128–145.Google Scholar
  40. Winkworth, R.C., Lundberg, J., Donoghue, M.J. 2008. Toward a resolution of Campanulid phylogeny, with special reference to the placement of Dipsacales. Taxon 47: 53–65.Google Scholar
  41. Zapata, F. 2010. Phylogenetics and diversification of Escallonia (Escalloniaceae). Ph.D. Thesis, University of Missouri-St. Louis, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  42. Zielinski, Q.B. 1955. Escallonia: the genus and its chromosomes. Bot. Gaz. 117: 166–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyThe Swedish Museum of Natural HistoryStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations