Advertisement

Optoelectronic Properties of PCPDTBT for Photovoltaics: Morphology Control and Molecular Doping

  • Elizabeth von Hauff
  • Enrico da Como
  • Sabine Ludwigs
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 272)

Abstract

Donor–acceptor copolymers have recently been recognized as excellent materials for organic photovoltaic applications. Because of complex film formation properties, however, direct correlations between morphology and optical and electrical properties have yet to be established. Within our collaborative project within the German Science Foundation–funded program “Elementary Processes in Photovoltaics,” we focused on the morphology control and molecular doping of poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b′]dithiophene)-alt-4,7(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] to control the optoelectronic properties. The main results are highlighted in this chapter.

Keywords

Doping Donor-acceptor copolymers Morphology 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank many coworkers who gave a crucial contribution to the results presented in this chapter. These colleagues are Sybille Allard, Manfred Bayer, Martin Brinkmann, Andras Deak, Felix Deschler, Antonietta De Sio, Daniele Di Nuzzo, Bernhard Ecker, Jochen Feldmann, Florian Fischer, Claudio Fontanesi, Tillmann Godde, Alamgir Karim, Anna Köhler, Rebecca Jones, Dieter Neher, Jurgen Parisi, Uli Scherf, Gisela Schulz, Stefan Schumacher, and Ali V. Tunc. The work was supported by the German Science Foundation (DFG) by the priority program SPP1355, “Fundamental Processes in Organic Photovoltaics” (HA 4447, CO751, LU1445).

References

  1. 1.
    Tremel K, Ludwigs S (2014) P3HT revisited: from molecular scale to solar cell devices. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Svensson M, Zhang F, Veenstra SC, Verhees WJH, Hummelen JC, Kroon JM, Inganäs O, Andersson MR (2003) Adv Mater 15:988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Reynolds JR (2010) Acc Chem Res 43:1396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mühlbacher D, Scharber M, Morana M, Zhu Z, Waller D, Gaudiana R, Brabec C (2006) Adv Mater 18:2884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hwang I-W, Soci C, Moses D, Zhu Z, Waller D, Gaudiana R, Brabec CJ, Heeger AJ (2007) Adv Mater 19:2307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Peet J, Kim JY, Coates NE, Ma WL, Moses D, Heeger AJ, Bazan GC (2007) Nat Mater 6:497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Peet J, Cho NS, Lee SK, Bazan GC (2008) Macromolecules 41:8655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Agostinelli T, Ferenczi TAM, Pires E, Foster S, Maurano A, Müller C, Ballantyne A, Hampton M, Lilliu S, Campoy-Quiles M, Azimi H, Morana M, Bradley DDC, Durrant J, Macdonald JE, Stingelin N, Nelson J (2011) J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys 49:717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gu Y, Wang C, Russell TP (2012) Adv Energy Mater 2:683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rogers JT, Schmidt K, Toney MF, Kramer EJ, Bazan GC (2011) Adv Mater 23:2284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rogers JT, Schmidt K, Toney MF, Bazan GC, Kramer EJ (2012) J Am Chem Soc 134:2884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fischer FSU, Trefz D, Back J, Kayunkid N, Tornow B, Albrecht S, Yager KG, Singh G, Karim A, Neher D, Brinkmann M, Ludwigs S (2014) Adv Mater 27:1223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fischer FSU, Kayunkid N, Trefz D, Ludwigs S, Brinkmann M (2015) Macromolecules 48:3974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Deschler F, Da Como E, Limmer T, Tautz R, Godde T, Bayer M, Von Hauff E, Yilmaz S, Allard S, Scherf U, Feldmann J (2011) Phys Rev Lett 107:127402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Veysel Tunc A, De Sio A, Riedel D, Deschler F, Da Como E, Parisi J, von Hauff E (2012) Org Electron 13:290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Spano FC, Silva C (2014) Annu Rev Phys Chem 65:477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Scharsich C, Fischer FSU, Wilma K, Hildner R, Ludwigs S, Köhler A (2015) J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys 53:1416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Clark J, Silva C, Friend RH, Spano FC (2007) Phys Rev Lett 98:206406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Scharsich C, Lohwasser RH, Sommer M, Asawapirom U, Scherf U, Thelakkat M, Neher D, Köhler A (2012) J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys 50:442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Köhler A, Hoffmann ST, Bässler H (2012) J Am Chem Soc 134:11594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fischer FSU, Tremel K, Saur A-K, Link S, Kayunkid N, Brinkmann M, Herrero-Carvajal D, Navarrete JTL, Delgado MCR, Ludwigs S (2013) Macromolecules 46:4924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Crossland EJW, Rahimi K, Reiter G, Steiner U, Ludwigs S (2011) Adv Funct Mater 21:518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Crossland EJW, Tremel K, Fischer F, Rahimi K, Reiter G, Steiner U, Ludwigs S (2012) Adv Mater 24:839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brinkmann M (2007) Macromolecules 40:7532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Di Nuzzo D, Viola D, Fischer FSU, Cerullo G, Ludwigs S, Da Como E (2015) J Phys Chem Lett 6:1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Falkenberg C, Uhrich C, Maennig B, Riede MK, Leo K (2008) J Appl Phys 6999:S9990Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chan CK, Zhao W, Kahn A, Hill IG (2009) Appl Phys Lett 94:24Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Walzer BMK, Pfeiffer M, Leo K (2007) Chem Rev 107:1233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Duong DT, Wang C, Antono E, Toney MF, Salleo A (2013) Org Electron 14:1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Duong DT, Phan H, Hanifi D, Jo PS, Nguyen TQ, Salleo A (2014) Adv Mater 26:6069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Deschler F, Riedel D, Deák A, Ecker B, Von Hauff E, Da Como E (2015) Synth Met 199:381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Reimer L (1998) Scanning electron microscopy. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Egerton RF (2005) Physical principles of electron microscopy: an introduction to TEM, SEM, and AEM. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Da Como E, Loi MA, Murgia M, Zamboni R, Muccini M (2006) J Am Chem Soc 128:4277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Loi MA, da Como E, Dinelli F, Murgia M, Zamboni R, Biscarini F, Muccini M (2004) Nat Mater 4:81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bolinger JC, Traub MC, Adachi T, Barbara PF (2011) Science 331:565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Reineke S, Walzer K, Leo K (2007) Phys Rev B 75:125328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhang Y, de Boer B, Blom PWM (2010) Phys Rev B 81:085201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zhang Y, de Boer B, Blom PWM (2009) Adv Funct Mater 19:1901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tautz R, Da Como E, Limmer T, Feldmann J, Egelhaaf H-J, von Hauff E, Lemaur V, Beljonne D, Yilmaz S, Dumsch I, Allard S, Scherf U (2012) Nat Commun 3:970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Carsten B, Szarko JM, Son HJ, Wang W, Lu L, He F, Rolczynski BS, Lou SJ, Chen LX, Yu L (2011) J Am Chem Soc 133:20468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zhang Y, Blom PWM (2010) Appl Phys Lett 97:083303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Arkhipov VI, Heremans P, Emelianova EV, Adriaenssens GJ, Bässler H (2003) Appl Phys Lett 82:3245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zhang Y, Zhou H, Seifter J, Ying L, Mikhailovsky A, Heeger AJ, Bazan GC, Nguyen T-Q (2013) Adv Mater 25:7038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pingel P, Schwarzl R, Neher D (2012) Appl Phys Lett 100:143303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Yoo S-J, Kim J-J (2015) Macromol Rapid Commun 36:984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Li A, Miao X, Deng X (2013) Synth Met 168:43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Stelzl FF, Würfel U (2012) Phys Rev B 86:075315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    von Hauff E, Dyakonov V, Parisi J (2005) Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 87:149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Horowitz G (1998) Adv Mater 10:365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Von Hauff E, Parisi J, Dyakonov V (2006) J Appl Phys 100:043702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wise AJ, Precit MR, Papp AM, Grey JK (2011) ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 3:3011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bruevich VV, Makhmutov TS, Elizarov SG, Nechvolodova EM, Paraschuk DY (2007) J Chem Phys 127:104905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tuladhar SM, Poplavskyy D, Choulis SA, Durrant JR, Bradley DDC, Nelson J (2005) Adv Funct Mater 15:1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Anthopoulos TD, Tanase C, Setayesh S, Meijer EJ, Hummelen JC, Blom PWM, de Leeuw DM (2004) Adv Mater 16:2174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Melzer C, Koop EJ, Mihailetchi VD, Blom PWM (2004) Adv Funct Mater 14:865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    McGehee MD, Cates NC, Gysel R, Dahl JEP, Sellinger A (2010) Chem Mater 22:3543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Tunc AV, Giordano AN, Ecker B, Da Como E, Lear BJ, Von Hauff E (2013) J Phys Chem C 117:22613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Veldman D, Ipek O, Meskers SCJ, Sweelssen J, Koetse MM, Veenstra SC, Kroon JM, van Bavel SS, Loos J, Janssen RAJ (2008) J Am Chem Soc 130:7721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gelinas S, Rao A, Kumar A, Smith SL, Chin AW, Clark J, van der Poll TS, Bazan GC, Friend RH (2013) Science 343:512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hallermann M, Da Como E, Feldmann J, Izquierdo M, Filippone S, Martín N, Jüchter S, von Hauff E (2010) Appl Phys Lett 97:023301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hallermann M, Kriegel I, Da Como E, Berger JM, Von Hauff E, Feldmann J (2009) Adv Funct Mater 19:3662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Morana M, Azimi H, Dennler G, Egelhaaf HJ, Scharber M, Forberich K, Hauch J, Gaudiana R, Waller D, Zhu ZH, Hingerl K, van Bavel SS, Loos J, Brabec CJ (2010) Adv Funct Mater 20:1180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Österbacka R, Jiang X, An C, Horovitz B, Vardeny Z (2002) Phys Rev Lett 88:226401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Di Nuzzo D, Aguirre A, Shahid M, Gevaerts VS, Meskers SCJ, Janssen RAJ (2010) Adv Mater 22:4321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Österbacka R (2000) Science 287:839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Cingolani R, Ploog K (1991) Adv Phys 40:535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kersting R, Lemmer U, Mahrt RF, Leo K, Kurz H, Bässler H, Göbel EO (1993) Phys Rev Lett 70:3820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Morana M, Wegscheider M, Bonanni A, Kopidakis N, Shaheen S, Scharber M, Zhu Z, Waller D, Gaudiana R, Brabec C (2008) Adv Funct Mater 18:1757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Perez MD, Borek C, Forrest SR, Thompson ME (2009) J Am Chem Soc 131:9281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Yim K-H, Whiting GL, Murphy CE, Halls JJM, Burroughes JH, Friend RH, Kim J-S (2008) Adv Mater 20:3319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ecker B, Egelhaaf HJ, Steim R, Parisi J, Von Hauff E (2012) J Phys Chem C 116:16333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Zamadar M, Asaoka S, Grills DC, Miller JR (2013) Nat Commun 4:2818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Neugebauer H (2004) J Electroanal Chem 563:153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pingel P, Zhu LY, Park KS, Vogel JO, Janietz S, Kim EG, Rabe JP, Bredas JL, Koch N (2010) J Phys Chem Lett 1:2037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Andersson MP, Uvdal P (2005) J Phys Chem A 109:2937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Di Nuzzo D, Fontanesi C, Jones R, Allard S, Dumsch I, Scherf U, von Hauff E, Schumacher S, Da Como E (2015) Nat Commun 6:6460CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth von Hauff
    • 1
  • Enrico da Como
    • 2
  • Sabine Ludwigs
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Physics and AstronomyVrije Universiteit AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsUniversity of BathBathUK
  3. 3.Institute of Polymer ChemistryUniversity of StuttgartStuttgartGermany

Personalised recommendations