Changing Economic Scenario of the Peri-Urban Area of Udaipur City, India
The demographic data of the last few decades revealed an increasing tendency of urbanisation in many states in India, including Rajasthan. The rural:urban ratio of the population which remained 80:20 in 1971 changed to 69:31 in 2011. The high growth rate of the population in urban areas increased the urban demand for agricultural commodities on one hand and widened the demand for land for the construction of houses, roads and other civil amenities on the other hand. With the expansion of urban areas, the adjoining rural areas are changed to peri-urban in terms of facilities, amenities and lifestyle. Evidently, there is a visible tremendous expansion in the value addition of land in the peri-urban area of the city of Udaipur. The present study is aimed to ascertain the changing scenario of land utilisation, change in farming system, and composition of household income in peri-urban areas.
The study revealed that urban coverage in Udaipur has increased from 17 km2 in 1946 to 221 km2 in 2011, while the density of population in the city area has been found to decline from 4347 persons per km2 in 1946 to 3773 persons per km2 in 2011. This is because more than 25 % plots in the urban limit are left idle after the conversion of land for residential purposes, which are owned by the people only for value addition and protected by boundary walls. This area is neither used for construction of houses nor for crop production. Large numbers of small land holders residing in the periphery of urban areas generally sold their land and purchased land 40–50 km away from the city areas. The study further revealed that farmers who partially sold their land in peri-urban areas of the city are mostly cultivating vegetables and dairy enterprises on their remaining holdings. These farmers are getting 446 days of employment and Rs. 3.52 lacs as income per year from both the enterprises. The farmers who did not sell their land area at all are getting 694 days employment and Rs. 4.72 lacs as income per year, while farmers who sold their total land area for residential purposes to the urban people have their income reduced up to Rs. 1.47 lacs and are getting negligible employment.
KeywordsPeri-urban area Value addition Crop production Vegetable farming Employment days
A demographic census of India is carried out every 10 years and the last census was held in 2011. The demographic data of the last few decades revealed an increasing tendency of urbanisation in many states, including Rajasthan. The rural:urban ratio of population which remained 80:20 in 1971 had changed to 69:31 in 2011. The high growth rate of population in urban areas has increased the urban demand for agricultural commodities on one side and widened the demand for land for the construction of houses, roads and other civil amenities in urban areas on the other side. With the expansion of urban areas on all sides of the cities the rural areas adjoining them were changed to peri-urban in terms of facilities, amenities and lifestyle. The land value in such areas has gone up very high. The large demand for highly perishable commodities like vegetables and milk in urban areas and also the expanding need for residential homes generated mixed responses to the census in peri-urban areas in most parts of the state. People residing within the periphery of city areas have been changing their source of income and making great changes in their farming systems. Udaipur city, being an educational hub as well as a tourist centre of global importance, resulted in the migration of a large number of people not only from nearby areas of Udaipur but from other parts of Rajasthan as well as from other states of the country. Evidently, there is a visible expansion in peri-urban areas in the city of Udaipur. The present study is aimed to (i) ascertain the changing scenario of land utilisation in peri-urban areas, (ii) ascertain the change in the farming system in peri-urban areas, and (iii) ascertain the level and composition of household income in peri-urban areas.
It is stated that land beyond the 15 km periphery of the Udaipur Nagar Nigam area is identified as peri-urban (Socio- Economic Census-2012 of Udaipur). Udaipur city and its nearby areas fall under Girwa tehsil in which 48 panchayats exist. Out of the 48 panchayats, 16 panchayats are falling under the peri-urban area of Udaipur. Out of those 16 panchayats, 6 panchayats have been selected on the basis of six major entry routes to Udaipur city. These routes are: on the east side Debari Panchayat, on the south side Titardi Panchayat, on the south west side Balicha Panchayat, on the north side Badgaon and Bhuwana Panchayat, and on the west side Sisarma Panchayat. They have been selected to ascertain the land use pattern, their level of income and cropping patterns. For this purpose two categories of farmers have been studied, such as (i) farmers who have sold their total land, and (ii) farmers who have not sold their land at all. Six farmers from each village, three farmers belonging to each category, were selected randomly. In all 36 farmers from the study area were selected randomly in which 18 farmers from each group have been selected to ascertain their income and employment through their land utilisation pattern.
List of Girwa Tehsil Panchayats adjoining Udaipur city
Name of Panchayat
Name of Panchayat
8.3.1 Land Use Patterns and Urbanisation Trends
Land use pattern of Udaipur district (area in 000’ ha)
Reporting area for land utilization purpose
Area not available for cultivation
Other uncultivated land (permanent pasture and misc. Uses)
Land area excluding fallow land (cultivable waste land)
(i) Fallow land other current fallow
(ii) Current fallow
Net area sown
Total cropped area
Area sown more than once
Trend of urbanization in India, 1951–2001
Urban population (in Millions)
Decennial growth rate of urban population
Tempo of urbanization
Annual exponential growth rate
Annual gain in % urban
Annual rate of gain in % urban
Growth of urban limit in Udaipur city
Area increased (sq.km.)
Per bigha value of land (Rs.)b
The value of land in peri-urban areas has increased manyfold for UIT converted land after independence, i.e., from Rs. 500 per bigha in 1946 to Rs. 1.0 lac per bigha in 2011 (Arha et al. 2014). The increased value of land in peri-urban areas is mainly due to increasing pressure of population as well as changes in land use from agriculture to non- agriculture uses viz. residential and industrial purposes. The second important reason of increasing land value is that more than 50 % of converted plots for residential purposes are left idle. The householders purchase the plots for investment purposes and such plots are left idle after constructing the boundary walls. On such small plots one cannot grow crops. As an individual, the owner of the plot is gaining the profit from the land by increasing its value but to society as a whole such idle land is not beneficial. The increasing scarcity of agricultural land due to population pressure and the concept of multi-storied houses in urban as well as rural areas should be considered and acted upon by the government in the near future. It is a well known fact that most of the old cities are established near to the river due to water availability and fertile land of the area has been used for residential purposes during the expansion of the urban area. Hence, there should be a clear cut policy for the change in land use by the government of any nation to protect the land for future generations.
Cropping pattern of major field crops grown in the Udaipur district
% increase or decrease
8.3.2 Income and Employment Patterns of Peri-Urban Households Who Did Not Sell Their Land
Land use, income and employment pattern of the peri-urban, does not sold the land (Average size of holding is 1.75 ha, 0.25 ha area is leased out)
Jowar, maize, urd, guar
Wheat, barley, gram, mustard
Jowar, lucerne, cheri, berseem
Okra, pea, spinach, tomato, brinjal and others
Maize, groundnut, urd, moong
Wheat, barley, gram
Pea, tomato, brinjal and others
The cropping pattern was very different in the year 1993–1994 than that of 2013–2014. In the year 2013–2014 farmers were allocating 0.50 ha under Kharif cereals, 0.50 ha under Rabi cereals, 0.50 ha under fodder crops, and 0.50 ha of area was allocated to vegetable crops. At present farmers are allocating 0.25 ha for leased out area. If this area is to be compared with 20 years ago it is found that more emphasis was given on the growing of cereal crops and farmers were allocated on an average 1.0 ha of land for cereal production during Kharif crops and again the same area was allocated under rabi cereals. There was no emphasis on dairy production due to fewer avenues for selling milk and its products in the urban areas. Likewise, the area allocated for vegetable production was also less due to the marketing problem of perishable products such as vegetables. Farmers were getting 283 man days employment and were getting Rs. 70,185.00 annually. In this way the impact was noticed on income and employment pattern of the farmers in rural and peri-urban areas. There was a lot of difference in the income and employment patterns during this period. It was noticed that cultivators were not growing jowar and guar at that time, because guar was not commercially recognised. Similarly, jowar was also not in demand among farmers for fodder purposes as animal feed. Similarly, high yielding and low water requirement variety of mustard was not introduced. Thus, areas had more gram under cultivation than mustard. In peri-urban areas vegetable production is providing more returns to the cultivators and this started after the expansion of the urban area into peri-urban areas.
Income and employment of peri-urban population from dairy, who did not sell the land
Production per day (kg)
1. Cross breed
2. Cross breed
3. Cross breed
8.3.3 Income and Employment Pattern of the Peri-Urban Population Who Totally Sold the Land
Land use, income and employment pattern of the peri-urban, totally sold the land
2013–2014 (Land sold)
Wheat, barley, Gram, mustard
Jowar, methi, lucearn, and berseem
Okra, pea, spinach, tomato, brinjal and others
The income and employment generation is much less for the people who sold all their land. They are leasing land from other farmers who did not sell their land area. Results at two points of time show that there is a lot of difference between employment opportunities between with and without avenues i.e. land for farmers.
Income and employment of peri-urban population from dairy, totally sold the land
Production per day (kg)
It is very remarkable (Annual Report of town planning, UIT, Udaipur city-2012) that these farmers have sold their land area to property dealers with the impression that their land has been acquired by the UIT for development purposes of the city but their land was not acquired by the UIT and they were cheated by either big colonisers or property dealers at lower land prices. These peri-urban people are taking land as leased in at half share of income from other landholders. Thus, there is clear cut demarcation between land holders and landless people. These people are getting only 350 days employment for their family during the year from dairy as well as crop production. If the data of milk production from cows and buffalo during the year 1993–1994 was compared with the production employment and income data of the year 2013–2014, it is very clear that average milk production and returns from milk was less during 1993–1994 when this at present peri-urban area was a rural area. There were less avenues of communication, transportation, use of agricultural technologies, and extension services available for farmers during 1993–1994. The present data clearly indicate that there is a drastic change in production, productivity and use of technology by the farmers.
8.4 Concluding Remarks
The demographic data of the last few decades revealed an increasing tendency of urbanisation in many states in India, including Rajasthan. The high growth rate of the population in urban areas increased the urban demand for agricultural commodities on one hand and widened the demand for land for the construction of houses, roads and other civil amenities on the other hand. With the expansion of urban areas, the adjoining rural areas are changed to peri-urban in terms of facilities, amenities and lifestyle. Evidently, there is a visible remarkable expansion in the value addition of land in the peri-urban area of the city of Udaipur. The study revealed that urban coverage in Udaipur has increased from 17 km2 in 1946 to 221 km2 in 2011, while the density of population in the city area has reduced from 4347 persons per km2 in 1946 to 3773 persons per km2 in 2011. It clearly indicates that more than 25 % plots in the urban limit is left idle after conversion of land for residential purposes, which is owned by the people only for value addition and protected by boundary walls. Large numbers of small landholders residing in the periphery of urban areas generally sold their land and purchased land 40–50 km away from the city areas. The study further revealed that farmers who partially sold land in peri-urban areas of the city are mostly cultivating vegetables and have dairy enterprises on their remaining holdings.
- Arha A, Audichya R, Pant DC (2014) Challenges in the urban and peri-urban transition zones and strategies for sustainable cities: experiences from selected cities. In: The security of water, food, energy and liveability of cities. Springer, Dordrecht. pp 71–85Google Scholar
- Bharadwaj GS (2014) Geo-social aspects of developments in peri-urban regions. In: The security of water, food, energy and liveability of cities. Springer, Dordrecht. pp 29–40Google Scholar
Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 2.5 License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/) which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the work’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if such material is not included in the work’s Creative Commons license and the respective action is not permitted by statutory regulation, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to duplicate, adapt or reproduce the material.