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Biological Membranes

  • Gaspar BanfalviEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Biological membranes (biomembranes) separate the interior of the cells from their external environment and cells from each other. Biomembranes are composed of lipid bilayers namely of two layers of amphipatic phospholipids with their hydrophobic tail regions turned inward and the polar head regions forming the intracellular (cytosolic) and extracellular (outer) faces of the bilayer. The selective permeability of biological membranes also referred to as semipermeability, partial permeability or differential permeability means that different molecules may diffuse, pass by passive and active or by other types of transport mediated by proteins. This chapter deals with basic properties of biological membranes describing different types of lipids that constitute the major components of membranes, characterizes cellular membranes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, membranes of subcellular organelles and functions of biological membranes.

Keywords

Amphipatic molecules Artificial membranes Bacterial membranes Caveolae Cell-cell interaction Cell surface markers Ceramide Chemiosmosis Cholesterol Cholesterol esters Cis-trans isomers Cytoskeletal elements Endomembrane systems Energy transduction Ether phospholipids Extracellular matrix Fatty acids Fluid mosaic membrane Focal adhesions Functions of membranes Galactocerebroside Glycerolipids Glycoshingolipids Inner and outer membranes Integrated proteins Invadosomes Lipid bilayer Lipid rafts Liposomes Selective permeability Membrane potential Membrane receptors Membrane transport Micelles Neutral fats Organellar membranes Plasmalemma Plasmalogens Plasma membrane Phosphoinositides Phospholipids Porins Postsynaptic densities Sphingomyelins Steroids Supramembrane structures Vesicular membranes 

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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of DebrecenDebrecenHungary

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