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Parental Involvement in PIRLS-2011

  • R. Annemiek PunterEmail author
  • Cees A. W. Glas
  • Martina R. M. Meelissen
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Part of the IEA Research for Education book series (IEAR, volume 1)

Abstract

This chapter builds on the parental involvement factors defined in chapter two, and examines how these may be reflected in the IEA’s PIRLS-2011 home, student and school questionnaire. Five scales to measure parental involvement are proposed and described.

Keywords

Parental involvement PIRLS Scales Grade 4 Reading literacy 
Our analysis of the PIRLS-2011 data of 41 countries was guided by the analytic framework (Table 3.1), which was based on the general framework (Table  2.1) we used to categorize the studies included in the literature review. The analytic framework matches the available indicators of parental involvement in the PIRLS-2011 data (Table 3.2).
Table 3.1

Analytic framework for parental involvement for secondary analyses of PIRLS-2011

Perspective

Dimension

Components

Source

Items

Parent

Dimension 1

Component 1

Home questionnaire

Question 2: A–I

Home-based involvement

Early literacy activities before beginning primary school

Dimension 1

Component 2

Home questionnaire

Question 9

Home-based involvement

Help with homework

Dimension 2

Component 3

Home questionnaire

Question 10: A, B, E

School-based involvement and home-school communication

School practices on parental involvement

Student

Dimension 3

Component 4

Student questionnaire

Question G7a

Question R9a: C

Home-based involvement

Student perception of parental involvement

School

Dimension 4

Component 5

School questionnaire

Question 11

Question 12: E–F

School-based involvement and home-school communication

School practices on parental involvement

Note The PIRLS 2011 questionnaires can be retrieved from http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/pirls2011/international-contextual-q.html (IEA & TIMSS and PIRLS International Study Center 2011)

aThe PIRLS 2011 student questionnaire consists of multiple sections. Item G7 refers to item 7 in the general part of the questionnaire, R9 to item 9 in the reading section

Table 3.2

Overview of components and items for secondary analyses of PIRLS-2011

Component

Question

Item number per component

Item in international datasets

Number of response categories

1 Early literacy activities before beginning primary school (home-based involvement)

Before your child began primary school, how often did you or someone else in your home do the following activities with him or her?

   

Read books

1

ASBH02A

3a

Tell stories

2

ASBH02B

3a

Sing songs

3

ASBH02C

3a

Play with alphabet toys

4

ASBH02D

3a

Talk about things you had done

5

ASBH02E

3a

Talk about what you had read

6

ASBH02F

3a

Play word games

7

ASBH02G

3a

Write letters or words

8

ASBH02H

3a

Read aloud signs and labels

9

ASBH02I

3a

(Source: Home questionnaire)

   

2 Help with homework (home-based involvement)

How often do you or someone else in your home do the following things with your child?

   

Discuss my child’s schoolwork with him/her

1

ASBH09A

4b

Help my child with his/her schoolwork

2

ASBH09B

4b

Make sure my child sets aside time to do his/her homework

3

ASBH09C

4b

Ask my child what he/she learned in school

4

ASBH09D

4b

Check if my child has done his/her homework

5

ASBH09E

4b

Help my child practice his/her reading

6

ASBH09F

4b

Help my child practice his/her math skills

7

ASBH09G

4b

Talk with my child about what he/she is reading

8

ASBH09H

4b

(Source: Home questionnaire)

   

3 School practices on parental involvement, parent perspective (home-school communication)

What do you think of your child’s school?

   

My child’s school includes me in my child’s education

1

ASBH10A

4c

My child’s school should make a greater effort to include me in my child’s education

2

ASBH10B

4c

My child’s school should do better at keeping me informed of his/her progress

3

ASBH10E

4c

(Source: Home questionnaire)

   

4 Parental involvement, student perspective (home-based involvement)

How often do the following things happen at home?

   

My parents ask me what I am learning in school

1

ASBG07A

4b

I talk about my schoolwork with my parents

2

ASBG07B

4b

My parents make sure that I set aside time for my homework

3

ASBG07C

4b

My parents check if I do my homework

4

ASBG07D

4b

Do you read for any of the following reasons?

   

My parents like it when I read

5

ASBR09C

4c

(Source: Student questionnaire)

   

5 School practices on parental involvement, school perspective (home-school communication, school-based involvement)

How often does your school do the following for parents concerning individual students?

   

Inform parents about their child’s learning progress

1

ACBG11AA

4d

Inform parents about the behavior and well-being of their child at school

2

ACBG11AB

4d

Discuss parents’ concerns or wishes about their child’s learning

3

ACBG11AC

4d

Support individual parents in helping their child with schoolwork

4

ACBG11AD

4d

How often does your school ask parents to do the following?

   

Volunteer for school projects, programs, and trips

5

ACBG11BA

4d

Serve on school committees

6

ACBG11BB

4d

How often does your school do the following for parents in general?

   

Inform parents about the overall academic achievement of the school

7

ACBG11CA

4d

Inform parents about school accomplishments

8

ACBG11CB

4d

Inform parents about the educational goals and pedagogic principles of the school

9

ACBG11CC

4d

Inform parents about the rules of the school

10

ACBG11CD

4d

Discuss parents’ concerns or wishes about the school’s organization

11

ACBG11CE

4d

Provide parents with additional learning materials

12

ACBG11CF

4d

Organize workshops or seminars for parents on learning or pedagogical issues

13

ACBG11CG

4d

How would you characterize each of the following within your school?

   

Parental support for student achievement

14

ACBG12E

5e

Parental involvement in school activities

15

ACBG12F

5e

(Source: School questionnaire)

   

Socioeconomic status (books at home, highest level of education completed by parent)

About how many books are there in your home?

 

ASBH14

5f

What is the highest level of education completed by the child’s father?

 

ASBH17A

9g

What is the highest level of education completed by the child’s mother?

 

ASBH17B

9g

(Source: Home questionnaire)

   

Gender

(Source: Student questionnaire)

 

ASBG01

2

Reading literacy

(Source: PIRLS reading comprehension assessment)

R11F01M to R31G14M

Note The datasets are described in detail in Foy and Drucker (2013)

aCategory labels are: 0 = Often, 1 = Sometimes, 2 = Never or almost never

bCategory labels are: 0 = Every day or almost every day, 1 = Once or twice a week, 2 = Once or twice a month, 3 = Never or almost never

cCategory labels are: 0 = Agree a lot, 1 = Agree a little, 2 = Disagree a little, 3 = Disagree a lot

dCategory labels are, after recoding: 0 = More than three times a year, 1 = Two to three times a year, 2 = Once a year, 3 = Never

eCategory labels are: 0 = Very high, 1 = High, 2 = Medium, 3 = Low, 4 = Very low

fCategory labels are: 0 = 1–10, 1 = 11–25, 2 = 26–100, 3 = 101–200, 4 = More than 200

gCategory labels are: 0 = Did not go to school, 1 = Some ISCED level 1 or 2, 2 = ISCED level 2, 3 = ISCED level 3, 4 = ISCED level 4, 5 = ISCED level 5B, 6 = ISCED level 5A, 7 = Beyond ISCED level 5A, 8 = Not applicable

The first dimension, i.e. home-based involvement from the perspective of parents, was split into two components or indicators: early literacy activities and help with homework. The early literacy activities component is especially well measured by the PIRLS home questionnaire. In the international reports of PIRLS-2011, early literacy activities is the only component reported as a scale, with Cronbach’s alphas ranging from 0.70 (Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy and Oman) to 0.88 (Romania), indicating high reliability (Martin and Mullis 2012). Although the international report does not report the scale statistics on the items regarding parental help with homework, this component is well addressed, as a total of eight items ask about these practices.

To consider the dimension of school-based involvement and home-school communication from the parent’s perspective (component 3 in the analytic framework), three relevant items were selected from the home questionnaire. The number of items for this indicator is low, but the items do seem highly relevant to this context. The student’s perception of parental involvement and the school’s practices on parental involvement (corresponding to components 4 and 5 in the analytic framework) are measured by five items in the student questionnaire and 15 items in the school questionnaire, respectively. Finally, we established the outcome variable and control variables for the structural multilevel model tested later (Table 3.2): the PIRLS reading literacy achievement scores, gender of the student, and, as approximates for SES, both books at home and highest level of education of the parents.

The benefit of using data from a large-scale assessment study such as PIRLS is not only the richness in data resulting from achievement tests, as well as student, home, teacher and school questionnaires, but also, obviously, the large number of countries for which these data are available. For this study, we initially considered the data from 43 countries participating in PIRLS-2011; countries not meeting the required response rate or for which the average achievement was not reliably measured were excluded. However, two countries, England and the USA, did not administer the home questionnaire and were therefore not included in the scale analyses for components 1–3, using items from the home questionnaire.

References

  1. Foy, P., & Drucker, K. T. (Eds.). (2013). PIRLS 2011 user guide for the international database. Chestnut Hill, MA, USA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College.Google Scholar
  2. IEA, & TIMSS and PIRLS International Study Center (2011). TIMSS and PIRLS press release 2011. PIRLS 2011 contextual questionnaires. Retrieved from http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/pirls2011/international-contextual-q.html.
  3. Martin, M. O., & Mullis, I. V. S. (Eds.). (2012). Methods and procedures in TIMSS and PIRLS 2011. Chestnut Hill, MA, USA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College.Google Scholar

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Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Annemiek Punter
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cees A. W. Glas
    • 1
  • Martina R. M. Meelissen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OMD, Faculty of BMSUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands

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