Generation of 3D/4D Photorealistic Building Models. The Testbed Area for 4D Cultural Heritage World Project: The Historical Center of Calw (Germany)

  • José Balsa-BarreiroEmail author
  • Dieter Fritsch
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9474)


3D/4D photorealistic models present great advantages in different applications like preservation of the cultural heritage, urban planning, public management, etc. For getting precise and reliable models, the geometries should be accurate and the textures wrapped with optimal quality imagery. The systems of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) are one of the most reliable techniques for capturing accurate data. However, these systems have some drawbacks like the missing data in certain areas or the lack of information about textures. Photogrammetric images contain the required textures and can be used to generate dense point clouds by dense image matching. In this way, the combined use of photogrammetric images and laser systems is symbiotic, being thus able to exploit the advantages of both technical methods. If the textures are wrapped using historical photos, the temporal dimension is incorporated to the model (4D), making it possible to reconstruct the past. However, historical photos have some additional drawbacks like the lack of metadata and the fact that they have been captured from only a few positions.


Point Cloud Iterative Close Point Terrestrial Laser Scanning Iterative Close Point Historical Center 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The results published in this work are supported by the European project 4D-CH-World framed within the 7th EU Framework Programme PEOPLE-2012-IAPP.


  1. 1.
    Heritage, G., Large, A.: Laser Scanning for the Environmental Sciences. Wiley Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Hoboken (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moussa, W., Abdel-Wahab, M., Fritsch, D.: An automatic procedure for combining digital images and laser scanner data. Int. Arch. Photogram. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. XXXIX(B5), 229–234 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rothermel, M., Wenzel, K., Fritsch, D., Haala, N.: SURE – surface reconstruction using images. Pres. Paper, LC3D Workshop, Berlin (2012)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Luhmann, T., Robson, S., Kyle, S., Harley, I.: Close Range Photogrammetry: Principles, Techniques and Applications. Whittles Publishing, Caithness (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie webpage. Accessed 19 August 2015
  6. 6.
    Europeana webpage. Accessed 19 August 2015
  7. 7.
    LEICA company: Product Specifications of the Leica ScanStation P20. Accessed 19 August 2015
  8. 8.
    ZEISS company: Technical Specifications of the Lens Biogon T* 2,8/21 ZM. Accessed 19 August 2015
  9. 9.
    Landesamt für Geoinformation und Landentwicklung of Baden-Württemberg webpage. Accessed 19 August 2015
  10. 10.
    Bustamante, A., Fritsch, D.: Digital preservation of the Calw market by means of automated HDS and photogrammetric texture mapping. Master thesis in Geomatics Engineering, University of Stuttgart (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li, Y.. Fritsch, D., Khosravani, A.: High definition modeling of Calw, badstrasse and its Google earth’ integration. Master thesis in Geomatics Engineering, University of Stuttgart (2014)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Han, L., Chong, Y., Li, Y., Fritsch, D.: 3D reconstruction by combining terrestrial laser scanner data and photogrammetric images. In: Proceedings of the Asia Assoc. of Remote Sensing, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar (2014)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fritsch, D., Klein, M.: Augmented reality 3D reconstruction of buildings – reconstructing the past. Int. J. Multim. Tools Appl. (2015). (under review)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Balsa-Barreiro, J., Pere, J., Lerma, J.L.: Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) point density analysis. Sci. Res. Essays 33, 3010–3019 (2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Balsa-Barreiro, J., Lerma, J.L.: A new methodology to estimate the discrete-return point density on airborne lidar surveys. Int. J. Remote Sensing 35, 1496–1510 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Photogrammetrie (IFP)University of StuttgartStuttgartGermany

Personalised recommendations