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The Physiology and Pathophysiology of Lipoxygenases in the Skin

  • Peter KriegEmail author
  • Gerhard Fürstenberger
Chapter
Part of the Progress in Inflammation Research book series (PIR)

Abstract

The skin is the primary barrier between the external environment and the internal milieu of the host protecting the body from physical and chemical insults and injury and preventing the loss of water. An active lipid metabolism and fatty acid-derived oxylipins are crucially involved in the structural integrity and functionality of the skin. Among them are lipoxygenases (LOX)-derived autacoids generated by an abundant and diverse cutaneous LOX metabolism. LOX products fulfill substantial functions in epithelial tissue homeostasis, inflammation as the general skin response to external damage, wound healing, and disease-related processes including numerous inflammatory skin conditions and the development of skin cancer. Recent results point to a critical role of a distinct LOX pathway in the development and maintenance of the epidermal barrier. This review focuses on the activities and mechanisms of actions of individual LOX-derived oxylipins, and the dysregulation of the corresponding LOX enzymes in diseased skin.

Keywords

Lipoxygenases Skin homeostasis Skin barrier function Skin inflammation Skin cancer Ichthyosis Psoriasis Atopic dermatitis Ceramides Essential fatty acids 

Abbreviations

ARCI

Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses

CE

Cornified cell envelope

CLE

Corneocyte lipid envelope

DC

Dendritic cell(s)

DMBA

7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthrazene

e12-LOX

Epidermis-type 12-lipoxygenase

EFA

Essential fatty acid(s)

eLOX-3

Epidermis-type lipoxygenase-3

EOS

Esterified ω-hydroxyacylsphingosine(s)

(F)FA

(Free) fatty acid(s)

H(P)ETE

Hydro(pero)xyeicosatetraenoic acid

H(P)ODE

Hydro(pero)xyoctadecadienoic acid

HxA (B)

hepoxilin A (B)

l12-LOX

Leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase

LOX

Lipoxygenases(s)

LT

Leukotriene(s)

OS

ω-hydroxyacylsphingosine(s)

p12-LOX

Platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

PMN

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils

PPAR

Peroxisome Proliferator-activated receptor

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

RT

Reverse Transcriptase

TEWL

Transepidermal water loss

TPA

12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Molecular Diagnostics of Oncogenic InfectionsGerman Cancer Research CenterHeidelbergGermany

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