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Lipoxins, Resolvins, and the Resolution of Inflammation

  • Antonio Recchiuti
  • Eleonora Cianci
  • Felice Simiele
  • Mario RomanoEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Progress in Inflammation Research book series (PIR)

Abstract

Resolution of acute inflammation is an active process, where endogenous specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM), derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids via lipoxygenase (LO)-driven biochemical pathways, have pivotal roles in “turning off” pro-inflammatory signals, prompting timely resolution. SPM potent and stereospecific bioactions are of considerable interest in immunopharmacology since unresolved inflammation represents a key pathogenetic mechanism of several widespread diseases.

In recent years, biosynthetic routes, chemical structure, and specific G-protein coupled receptors for many members of the SPM genus have been uncovered. This knowledge, that emphasizes the complex pathobiological role of LO in resolution of inflammation, provides previously unforeseen opportunity and strategies for innovative pharmacology for a variety of human pathologies.

Here, we provide an overview of biosynthetic pathways, receptors, bioactions and underlying mechanisms as well as of preclinical and clinical evidence of efficacy of the best-studied SPM.

Keywords

Chronic diseases Enzymes G-protein coupled receptors Immunity Immunoresolvent Lipoxygenases Leukocytes Polyunsaturated fatty acids 

List of Abbreviations

AA

Arachidonic acid (5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 14Z -eicosatetraenoic acid)

AKI

Acute kidney injury

ALI

Acute lung injury

ALX/FPR2

Lipoxin A4 receptor/formyl peptide receptor 2

ATL

Aspirin triggered lipoxin

ATLa

Aspirin triggered lipoxin analog

CCR5

C-C Chemokine receptor type 5

COX

Cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin H2 synthase)

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid (4Z, 7Z, 10Z, 13Z, 16Z, 19Z -docosahexaenoic acid)

EPA

Eicosapentaenoic acid (5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 14Z, 17Z -eicosapentaenoic acid)

GPR32/DRV1

G-Protein coupled receptor 32/resolvin D1 receptor 1

HSV

Herpes simplex virus

IFN

Interferon

IL

Interleukin

LO

Lipoxygenase

LM

Lipid mediator

LT

Leukotriene

LX

Lipoxin

MaR

Maresin

MCP-1

Monocyte chemotactic protein 1

NO

Nitric oxide

PD

Protectin

PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factor

PG

Prostaglandin

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty

Rv

Resolvin

T2D

Type 2 diabetes

TMJ

Temporomandibular joint

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-α

VSMC

Vascular smooth muscle cells

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonio Recchiuti
    • 1
    • 3
  • Eleonora Cianci
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Felice Simiele
    • 1
    • 3
  • Mario Romano
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological SciencesG. D’Annunzio University of Chieti-PescaraChietiItaly
  2. 2.Department of Medicine and Aging SciencesG. D’Annunzio University of Chieti-PescaraChietiItaly
  3. 3.Center of Excellence on AgingG. D’Annunzio University of Chieti-PescaraChietiItaly

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