Introducing Flexibility into Data Centers for Smart Cities
In Europe, more and more cities are aiming to become part of the “smart cities” vision. Smart Cities are based on a plethora of sensor data which need to be processed in data centres. Therefore data centres play an important role in making cities smart. However, at the same time they are huge consumers of electrical energy and thus counteract smart cities’ goals of an IT based low carbon economy. The project DC4Cities takes up the challenge of turning data centres into flexible energy consumers that to a high degree run on renewable energy sources. It offers a technical solution for optimizing the share of renewables in data centre energy consumption and supports this by novel contracts and business models. This paper introduces power management options between data centres and a smart city which are backed by adaptation strategies within the data centre. It also presents a set of contracts that complement the technical solution and a trial evaluation of the approach.
KeywordsData centre Energy-aware Renewable energy source Smart cities Workload scheduling
This work was carried out within the European Project DC4Cities (FP7-ICT-2013.6.2).
- 2.Basmadjian, R., Niedermeier, F., Lovasz, G., de Meer, H., Klingert, S.: GreenSDAs leveraging power adaption collaboration between energy provider and data centres. In: Proceedings of 3rd Conference on Sustainable Internet and ICT for Sustainability. IEEE, pp. 1–9 (2013)Google Scholar
- 3.Beloglazov, A., Buyya, R.: OpenStack Neat: a framework for dynamic and energy-efficient consolidation of virtual machines in openstack clouds. In: Fox, G.C., Walker, D.W. (eds.) Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience. Wiley, Hoboken (2014)Google Scholar
- 4.Berl, A., Klingert, S., Beck, M., de Meer, H.: Integrating data centres into demand-response management: a local case study. In: 39th Conference of Industrial Electronics Society (IECON), pp. 4762–4767. IEEE (2013)Google Scholar
- 6.Botero, J.B., Klingert, S., Hesselbach-Serra, X., Falcone, A., Giuliani, G.: GreenSLAs: providing energy consumption flexibility in DCs through energy-aware contracts. In: 2nd International Conference on Smart Grids and Green IT Systems (SMARTGREENS), pp. 119–122. SCITEPRESS (2013)Google Scholar
- 7.Brenna, M., Falvo, M.C., Foiadelli, F., Martirano, L., Massaro, F., Poli, D., Vaccaro, A.: Challenges in energy systems for the smart-cities of the future. In: Proceedings of 2nd IEEE EnergyCon Conference, pp. 755-762. IEEE (2012)Google Scholar
- 10.European Commission: Investing in the Development of Low Carbon Technologies (SET-Plan). COM 519 final (2009)Google Scholar
- 11.Goiri, I., Katsak, W., Le, K., Nguyen, T., Bianchini, R.: Parasol and greenswitch: managing datacenters powered by renewable energy. SIGARCH Comput. Archit. News 41(1), 51–64 (2013)Google Scholar
- 12.Liu, Y., Yuen, C., Ul Hassan, N., Huang, S., Yu, R., Xie, S.: Electricity cost minimization for a microgrid with distributed energy resource under different information availability. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 62(4), 1–12 (2014)Google Scholar
- 13.Sakellarriou, R., Yarmolenko, V.: Job scheduling on the grid: towards SLA-based scheduling. In: Grandinetti, L. (ed.) High Performance Computing and Grids in Action Advance in Parallel Computing, vol. 16, pp. 207–222. IOS, Amsterdam (2009)Google Scholar
- 14.Sioshansi, F.P. (ed.): Smart Grid: Integrating Renewable, Distributed & Efficient Energy. Elsevier, Philadelphia (2012)Google Scholar
- 16.Wierman, A., Liu, Z., Liu, I., Mohsenian-Rad, H.: Opportunities and challenges for data center demand response. In: Proceedings of International Green Computing Conference (IGCC), pp.1–10 (2014)Google Scholar