Advertisement

The Stress Response of Critical Illness: Metabolic and Hormonal Aspects, Hormonal Regulation, Particular Clinical Situations “Morbid Obesity”

  • Moise Coeffier
  • Fabienne TamionEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Obesity is a widespread condition associated with a variety of mechanical, metabolic, and physiologic changes that affect outcomes and delivery of care in ICU. In particular, the metabolic response to critical illness of obese patients is characterized by changes in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fat, and in the utilization of proteins. The endocrine functions of adipose tissue might be involved role in the adaptive changes to critical illness.

Keywords

Intensive Care Unit Critical Illness Intensive Care Unit Patient Intensive Care Unit Mortality Intensive Care Unit Length 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Ogden CL, Yanovski SZ, Carroll MD, Flegal KM (2007) The epidemiology of obesity. Gastroenterology 132(6):2087–2102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kuczmarski RJ, Flegal KM (2000) Criteria for definition of overweight in transition: background and recommendations for the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 72(5):1074–1081PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Woods SC, D’Alessio DA (2008) Central control of body weight and appetite. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93(11)(suppl 1):S37–S50CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chandra R, Liddle RA (2007) Cholecystokinin. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 14(1):63–67CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lorenz DN, Goldman SA (1982) Vagal mediation of the cholecystokinin satiety effect in rats. Physiol Behav 29(4):599CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wiedmer P, Nogueiras R, Broglio F, D’Alessio D, Tschop MH (2007) Ghrelin, obesity and diabetes. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3(10):705–712CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Asakawa A, Inui A, Kaga T et al (2001) Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulatory signal from stomach with structural resemblance to motilin. Gastroenterology 120(2):337–345CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kreitschmann-Andermahr I, Suarez P, Jennings R, Evers N, Brabant G (2010) GH/IGF-I regulation in obesity—mechanisms and practical consequences in children and adults. Horm Res Paediatr 73(3):153–160CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dube PE, Brubaker PL (2004) Nutrient, neural and endocrine control of glucagon-like peptide secretion. Horm Metab Res 36(11–12):755–760CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kinzig KP, D’Alessio DA, Seeley RJ (2002) The diverse roles of specific GLP-1 receptors in the control of food intake and the response to visceral illness. J Neurosci 22(23):10470–10476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hayes MR, De Jonghe BC, Kanoski SE (2010) Role of the glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor in the control of energy balance. Physiol Behav 100(5):503–510CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mafong DD, Henry RR (2008) Exenatide as a treatment for diabetes and obesity: implications for cardiovascular risk reduction. Curr Atheroscler Rep 10(1):55–60CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hogue CW Jr, Stearns JD, Colantuoni E et al (2009) The impact of obesity on outcomes after critical illness: a meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med 35(7):1152–1170CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Akinnusi ME, Pineda LA, El Solh AA (2008) Effect of obesity on intensive care morbidity and mortality: a meta-analysis. Crit Care Med 36(1):151–158CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Oliveros H, Villamor E (2008) Obesity and mortality in critically ill adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity (Silver Spring) 16(3):515–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cave MC, Hurt RT, Frazier TH et al (2008) Obesity, inflammation, and the potential application of pharmaconutrition. Nutr Clin Pract 23(1):16–34CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Martino JL, Stapleton RD, Wang M et al (2011) Extreme obesity and outcomes in critically ill patients. Chest 140:1198–1206CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Caloin M (2004) Modeling of lipid and protein depletion during total starvation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 287:E790–E798CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Langouche L, Perre SV, Thiessen S et al (2010) Alterations in adipose tissue during critical illness: an adaptive and protective response? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:507–516CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Winfield RD, Delano MJ, Dixon DJ et al (2010) Differences in outcome between obese and nonobese patients following severe blunt trauma are not consistent with an early inflammatory genomic response. Crit Care Med 38:51–58CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dunham CM, Fealk MH, Sever WE 3rd (2003) Following severe injury, hypocholesterolemia improves with convalescence but persists with organ failure or onset of infection. Crit Care 7:R145–R153CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dungan KM, Braithwaite SS, Preiser JC (2009) Stress hyperglycemia. Lancet 373:1798–1807CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wolfe RR, Martini WZ (2000) Changes in intermediary metabolism in severe surgical illness. World J Surg 24:639–647CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Boden G, Shulman GI (2002) Free fatty acids in obesity and type 2 diabetes: defining their role in the development of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. Eur J Clin Invest 32(Suppl 3):14–23CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Van den Berghe G, Wilmer A, Hermans G et al (2006) Intensive medical therapy in the medical ICU. N Engl J Med 354:449–461CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jeevanandam M, Young DH, Schiller WR (1991) Obesity and the metabolic response to severe multiple trauma in man. J Clin Invest 87:262–269CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Abdul-Ghani MA, Muller FL, DeFronzo RA et al (2008) Deleterious action of FA metabolites on ATP synthesis: possible link between lipotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295:E678–E685CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schiffelers SL, Saris WH, van Baak MA (2001) The effect of an increased free fatty acid concentration on thermogenesis and substrate oxidation in obese and lean men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25:33–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Reid CL, Campbell IT, Little RA (2004) Muscle wasting and energy balance in critical illness. Clin Nutr 23:273–280CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Choban PS, Flancbaum L (2000) Nourishing the obese patient. Clin Nutr 19(5):305–311CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dickerson RN, Boschert KJ, Kudsk KA (2002) Hypocaloric enteral tube feeding in critically ill obese patients. Nutrition 18:241–246CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Biolo G, Agostini F, Simunic B et al (2008) Positive energy balance is associated with accelerated muscle atrophy and increased erythrocyte glutathione turnover during 5 wk of bed rest. Am J Clin Nutr 88:950–958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Krishnan JA, PArce PB, Martinez A (2004) Caloric intake in medical ICU patients: consistency of care with guidelines and relationship to clinical outcomes. Nutr Clin Pract 19:645–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Villet S, Chiolero RL, Bollmann MD et al (2005) Negative impact of hypocaloric feeding and energy balance on clinical outcome in ICU patients. Clin Nutr 24:502–509CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    McClave SA, Martindale RG, Vanek VW et al (2009) Guidelines for the provision and assessment of nutrition support therapy in the adult critically ill patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.). JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 33:277–316CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1073RouenFrance
  2. 2.Institute for Research and Innovation in BiomedicineRouenFrance
  3. 3.Nutrition DepartmentRouen University HospitalRouenFrance
  4. 4.Medical Intensive Care UnitRouen University HospitalRouenFrance

Personalised recommendations