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Micronutrients

  • Mette M. BergerEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The status of 11 trace elements and 13 vitamins, collectively named micronutrients, is challenged in several critical care conditions. Inflammation and oxidative stress cause redistribution of micronutrients to organs involved in synthesis and immunity resulting in significant drops of plasma concentrations even in absence of real deficits. Nevertheless these changes alter the organism’s capacity to respond to circulating stressors, and participate in worsening organ function in patients dependent on intensive care. Only one vitamin deficiency may be critical during the first 48 hours: Thiamine. Other alterations will result in later consequences in conditions characterized by the combination of a strong inflammation and of losses of biological fluids. The properties, risks and potential for intervention of the essential micronutrients are discussed, mainly regarding their immune, antioxidant and wound healing properties. The place in metabolism of carnitine and choline, actually missing in parenteral nutrition, is addressed.

Keywords

Parenteral Nutrition Critical Illness Intensive Care Unit Patient Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Thiamine Deficiency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Service de Médecine Intensive Adulte et BrûlésUniversity Hospital CHUVLausanneSwitzerland

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