The Security Defect of a Multi-pixel Encoding Method

  • Teng GuoEmail author
  • Feng Liu
  • ChuanKun Wu
  • YoungChang Hou
  • YaWei Ren
  • Wen Wang
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7807)


A visual cryptography scheme (VCS) encodes a secret image into several share images, such that stacking sufficient number of shares will reveal the secret while insufficient number of shares provide no information about the secret. The beauty of VCS is that the secret can be decoded by human eyes without needing any cryptography knowledge nor any computation. Variance is first introduced by Hou et al. in 2005 to evaluate the visual quality of size invariant VCS. Liu et al. in 2012 thoroughly verified this idea and significantly improved the visual quality of previous size invariant VCSs. In this paper, we first point out the security defect of Hou et al.’s multi-pixel encoding method (MPEM) that if the secret image has simple contours, each single share will reveal the content of that secret image. Then we use variance to explain the above security defect.


Visual cryptography Variance Security defect 



This work was supported by 863 Program grant No. Y370071102, the “Strategic Priority Research Program” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences grant No. XDA06010701 and the “Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities” grant No. 3262015T20 (Topic: A new exploration of information research technology of Big Data environment, Project Leader: Yang LiangBin). Many thanks to the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teng Guo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Feng Liu
    • 2
  • ChuanKun Wu
    • 2
  • YoungChang Hou
    • 3
  • YaWei Ren
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  • Wen Wang
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Information Science and TechnologyUniversity of International RelationsBeijingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Information Security, Institute of Information EngineeringChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Department of Information ManagementTamkang UniversityTaipei CountyTaiwan
  4. 4.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  5. 5.School of Information ManagementBeijing Information Science and Technology UniversityBeijingChina

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