Advertisement

The Impact of the Concepts of Human Nature on the Methodology of Humanistic Economics and Religious Motivated Streams of Economics (Buddhist, Islam and Christian)

  • Anna Horodecka
Conference paper
Part of the Eurasian Studies in Business and Economics book series (EBES, volume 3/2)

Abstract

The shape of the economics depends on the concept of human nature, which builds main assumptions of any economical school. This set of assumptions is made about the individual (his/behavior, motives, meaning), interactions with the natural and supernatural powers (worldview) and other people (social world) and provides foundations to the economics. The chapter focuses on the influence of this concept on its methodology and methods of the economics. This impact is presented here on the example of humanistic economics, which is here understood widely, including approaches developed within particular world religions as: Buddhism, Islam and Christian. The method applied to this research is a content analysis of the most important texts created within the humanistic economics and directions of economics motivated by world religions. To reach this goal, the following steps will be conducted: firstly, the concepts of human nature will be defined and categorized; secondly, the main levels and dimensions of the concept of human nature in the humanistic tradition will be presented, and thirdly the influence of such understanding of the human being on the methodology, methods and main theories within those denominations of economics will be discussed. The analysis proved that main orientations of these schools of economic could be explained by the changed assumptions about the human nature.

Keywords

Humanistic economics Concept of human nature Islam economics Christian economics Buddhist economics Methodology 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The research has been supported by the National Science Centre (UMO-2011/03/D/HS4/00849.

References

  1. Alexandrin, G. (1993). Elements of Buddhist economics. International Journal of Social Economics, 20, 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali, M. S. (2004). The Holy Qur’an: Arabic text and English translation. Tilford: Islam.Google Scholar
  3. Bowen, H. R. (1972). Toward a humanist economics. Nebraska Journal of Economics and Business, 11(4), 9–24.Google Scholar
  4. Bühler, C. (1971). Basic theoretical concepts of humanistic psychology. American Psychologist, 26, 378–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bühler, C., & Allen, M. (1982). Einführung in die humanistische Psychologie. Stuttgart: Ernst Klett.Google Scholar
  6. Daly, H., & Cobb, J. (1994). For the common good (redirecting the economy toward community, the environment, and a sustainable future). Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
  7. Daniels, P. L. (2005). Economic systems and the Buddhist world view: The 21st century nexus. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 34, 245–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Diwan, R. (1991). Gandhian economics and contemporary society. Gandhian Perspectives, 4, 1–28.Google Scholar
  9. Diwan, R. (2000). Relational wealth and the quality of life. Journal of Socio-Economics, 29, 305–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Diwan, R., & Desai, S. (1990). Perestroika and Gandhian economics. International Journal of Social Economics, 17, 4–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Diwan, R., & Lutz, M. A. (1985). Essays in Gandhian economics. New Delhi: Gandhian Peace.Google Scholar
  12. El-Ghazali, A. H. (1994). Man is the basis of the Islamic strategy for economic development. Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank.Google Scholar
  13. Etzioni, A. X. (2010). Moral dimension: Toward a new economics. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  14. Funkhouser, G. R. (2000). A world ethos and the clash of civilizations: A cross-cultural comparison of attitudes. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 12, 73–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Glapiński, A. (2012). Meandry historii ekonomii. Warszawa: Oficyna Wydawnicza Szkoła Główna Handlowa.Google Scholar
  16. Hardt, Ł. (2013a). O korzyściach z refleksji filozoficznej nad ekonomią. Studia Ekonomiczne, 7–11.Google Scholar
  17. Hardt, Ł. (2013b). Studia z realistycznej filozofii ekonomii. Warszawa: C.H. Beck.Google Scholar
  18. Hattam, R. (2004). Awakening-struggle: Towards a Buddhist critical social theory. Flaxton, QLD: Post Pressed.Google Scholar
  19. Herzberg, F. (1964). The motivation-hygiene concept and problems of manpower. Personnel Administration, 27(1), 3–7.Google Scholar
  20. Herzberg, F. (1966). Work and the nature of man. Cleveland, OH: World.Google Scholar
  21. Horodecka, A. (2012). Rola prądów filozoficznych w kształtowaniu metodologii nauk ekonomicznych [The influence of philosophical schools on the methodology of economics]. Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu, 245, 110–119.Google Scholar
  22. Horodecka, A. (2014). Komponenty obrazu człowieka w ekonomii [Components of the concept of human nature in the economics]. Kwartalnik Historii Myśli Ekonomicznej, 5, 117–139.Google Scholar
  23. Horodecka, A. (2015). Concept of human nature in selected world religions as institutional determinants of the sustainable development policy. Studia Ekonomiczne—Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Katowicach, 213, 33–44.Google Scholar
  24. Horwarth, M., & Frei, K. (2012). Buchbesprechungen. Eine humane Ökonomie? Julian Nida -Rümelins Neuzínterpretation antiker Tugenethik. ORDO: Jahrbuch für die Ordnung von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, 63, 475–483.Google Scholar
  25. Husserl, E. (2012). Ideas: General introduction to pure phenomenology. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Khan, M. S. (1997). Islamic interest-free banking: A theoretical analysis. Islamic Economics, 9, 3–36.Google Scholar
  27. Kuran, T. (1995). Islamic economics and the Islamic subeconomy. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(4), 155–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lennerfors, T. T. (2013). Vintage book review. Small is beautiful: Economics as if people mattered, EF schumacher. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 29, 402–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lipps, T. (1907). Vom Fühlen, Wollen und Denken: Versuch einer Theorie des Willens. Leipzig: Barth.Google Scholar
  30. Lipps, T. (1965). Empathy and aesthetic pleasure. In K. Aschenbrenner & A. Isenberg (Eds.), Aesthetic theories: Studies in the philosophy of art (pp. 403–412). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  31. Lovejoy, A. O. (2011). The great chain of being: A study of the history of an idea. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.Google Scholar
  32. Lück, H. E. (2009). Geschichte der Psychologie: Strömungen, Schulen, Entwicklungen. Stuttgar: W. Kohlhammer.Google Scholar
  33. Lutz, M. A., & Lux, K. (1979). The challenge of humanistic economics. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings.Google Scholar
  34. Lutz, M. A., & Lux, K. (1988). Humanistic economics: The new challenge. New York: Bootstrap.Google Scholar
  35. Macintyre, A. (1981). The nature of the virtues. Hastings Center Report, 11, 27–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Maslow, A. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Maslow, A. H. (1969). Various meanings of transcendence. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 1, 56–66.Google Scholar
  38. Maslow, A. H. (2013). Toward a psychology of being. New York: Start.Google Scholar
  39. Maslow, A. H., Von Bertalanffy, L., Jourard, S. M., Hallman, R. J., Margoshes, A., Litt, S., et al. (1966). Self-transcendence as a human phenomenon. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 6, 107–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. May, R. (1996). Psychology and the human dilemma. New York: WW Norton.Google Scholar
  41. May, R. (2009). Man’s search for himself. New York: WW Norton.Google Scholar
  42. Mccloskey, D. N. (2010). The bourgeois virtues: Ethics for an age of commerce. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  43. Mendis, P. (1994). Buddhist economics and community development strategies. Community Development Journal, 29, 195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mirandolla, P. D. (1965). On the dignity of man; on being and the one; heptaplus. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.Google Scholar
  45. Nelson, T. (2009). Holy Bible, New King James Version (NKJV). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.Google Scholar
  46. Nida-Rumelin, J. (2011). Die Optimierungsfalle: Philosophie einer humanen Ökonomie. München: Verlag Irsiana.Google Scholar
  47. O’boyle, E. J. (2005). Homo socio-economicus: Foundational to social economics and the social economy. Review of Social Economy, 63, 483–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Opdebeeck, H. (2011). Schumacher’s people-centered economics. In L. Bouckaert & L. Zsolnai (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of spirituality and business (pp. 171–179). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  49. Payutto, P. A. (1994). Buddhist economics, a middle way for the market place. Bangkok: Buddhadhamma.Google Scholar
  50. Platón, & Guthrie, W. K. C. (1961). Plato: Protagoras and Meno. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  51. Pope, A. (2014). An essay on man. Santa Monica: Bookpubber.Google Scholar
  52. Presley, J. R., & Sessions, J. G. (1994). Islamic economics: The emergence of a new paradigm. The Economic Journal, 104, 584–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Restakis, J. (1991). Humanizing the economy. Gabriola Island: New Society.Google Scholar
  54. Rogers, C. R. (1957a). Becoming a person. New York: Association Press.Google Scholar
  55. Rogers, C. R. (1957b). A note on the “nature of man”. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 4, 1939–2168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schumacher, E. F. (1973). Small is beautiful: A study of economics as if people mattered. London: Blond and Briggs.Google Scholar
  57. Schumacher, E. F. (1977). A guide for the perplexed. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  58. Schumacher, E. F. (1979). Good work. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  59. Sen, A. K. (1987). On ethics and economics. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  60. Sennett, R. (1998). The corrosion of character (the personal consequences of work in the new capitalism). New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  61. Sivaraksa, S. (2011). The wisdom of sustainability: Buddhist economics for the 21st century. Manui: Koa Books.Google Scholar
  62. Spaemann, R. (1996). World ethos as a project + The role of states and religions in protecting human-rights. Merkur-Deutsche Zeitschrift fuer Europaeisches Denken, 50, 893–904.Google Scholar
  63. Tomer, J. F. (2008). Beyond the rationality of economic man, toward the true rationality of human man. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 37, 1703–1712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. The World Factbook. (2015). Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency.Google Scholar
  65. Zadek, S. (1997). Towards a progressive Buddhist economics. In J. Watts, A. Senauke, & S. Bhikku (Eds.), Entering the realm of reality: Towards Dharmmic societies (pp. 241–273). Bangkok: INEB.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Development Economics and Economic PolicyWarsaw School of EconomicsWarsawPoland

Personalised recommendations