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Why Cytoskeletal Gel?

  • Yoshihito Osada
  • Ryuzo Kawamura
  • Ken-Ichi Sano
Chapter

Abstract

The cell which is surrounded by the hydrogels of ECM is also a hydrogel of cytoskeletal proteins. In vivo, cytoskeletons contribute to organization of cellular structures with the robust and dynamic nature. By the thickness of the cytoskeletal filaments, they are usually categorized into three types as microtubule (MT), actin, and intermediate filaments (IFs). In contrast to MT and actin in which amino acid sequences are relatively mutual among different species of living organisms, intermediate filaments have wider variety in the classified types. The roles of each cytoskeletal protein in relation to other cellular proteins have been intensively elucidated by biology, though it is still on the way to comprehensive understanding. Besides, physical property of the cytoskeleton has been investigated with biophysical interest. Rheometric analysis of cytoskeletal proteins as suspensions revealed the difference of viscoelastic properties among MT, actin, and IF even at a macroscopic scale [1]. This result indicates that nanometric features of unit molecules can be reflected to macroscopic ones of their suspension, presumably due to their hierarchical structure. Moreover, the hierarchical assemblies of these proteins are formed and maintained via dynamic self-assembly process. Since these filaments and the networked structures of them are physically robust with spatiotemporal organization, they are responsible not only to maintain the shapes of local cell structure or of whole cell but to give the change of these shapes and the motion with integration and synchronization upon the environmental changes. Such a property is quite unique to biological systems, when we look at them from a viewpoint of materials science. Utilization of cytoskeletal proteins for hydrogel materials, as an initial attempt, is promising to realize a new functional material with a concept of hierarchical structure. Before reviewing examples of hydrogels made up from the cytoskeletal proteins, basics about each cytoskeletal proteins, i.e., MT, actin, and IF, will be introduced below.

Keywords

Cytoskeletal Protein Motor Protein Tubulin Dimer Cytoskeletal Filament Emergent Function 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshihito Osada
    • 1
  • Ryuzo Kawamura
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ken-Ichi Sano
    • 4
  1. 1.RIKENWako-shiJapan
  2. 2.Nakabayashi Laboratory Department of Chemistry Faculty of ScienceSaitama UniversityNaraJapan
  3. 3.Saitama University Department of ChemistrySaitama-shiJapan
  4. 4.Nagoya UniversityChikusa-kuJapan

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