Treatment Protocols for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma (≤3 cm): RFA or Resection?

  • Yudong Qiu
  • Yilei MaoEmail author
Part of the Difficult Decisions in Surgery: An Evidence-Based Approach book series (DDSURGERY)


Treatment selection for small hepatocellular carcinoma remains controversial. Although there are various studies showed different prognostic results in patients with small HCC by resection compared with RFA or LT, some other important factors, not only the tumor size, which may correlate with prognosis are still lack especially for gross classification. The identification of gross classification is crucial for the discrimination of small HCC and may play a great role for the final decision. Our results showed that not all the patients with small HCC are applicable for RFA treatment, so as to say, resection may be more beneficial for patients with the nonboundary type of small HCC.


Small hepatocellular carcinoma RFA Hepatic resection Gross classification 


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreas SurgeryDrum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Department of Liver SurgeryPeking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College & Chinese Academy of Medical SciencesBeijingChina

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