International Conference on Research in Security Standardisation

Security Standardisation Research pp 21-39 | Cite as

Tap-Tap and Pay (TTP): Preventing the Mafia Attack in NFC Payment

  • Maryam Mehrnezhad
  • Feng Hao
  • Siamak F. Shahandashti
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9497)

Abstract

Mobile NFC payment is an emerging industry, estimated to reach $670 billion by 2015. The Mafia attack presents a realistic threat to payment systems including mobile NFC payment. In this attack, a user consciously initiates an NFC payment against a legitimate-looking NFC reader (controlled by the Mafia), not knowing that the reader actually relays the data to a remote legitimate NFC reader to pay for something more expensive. In this paper, we present “Tap-Tap and Pay” (TTP), to effectively prevent the Mafia attack in mobile NFC payment. In TTP, a user initiates an NFC payment by physically tapping her mobile phone against the reader twice in succession. The physical tapping causes transient vibrations at both devices, which can be measured by the embedded accelerometers. Our experiments indicate that the two measurements are closely correlated if they are from the same tapping, and are different if obtained from different tapping events. By comparing the similarity between the two measurements, we can effectively tell apart the Mafia fraud from a legitimate NFC transaction. To evaluate the practical feasibility of this solution, we present a prototype of the TTP system based on a pair of NFC-enabled mobile phones and also conduct a user study. The results suggest that our solution is reliable, fast, easy-to-use and has good potential for practical deployment.

Keywords

Near Field Communication Mobile NFC payment Mafia attack MITM attack Mobile sensor Accelerometer Security Usability 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank all the participants who contributed to our experiments. We also thank the anonymous reviewers of this paper. The second and the third authors are supported by ERC Starting Grant No. 306994.

References

  1. 1.
    Book 2 - Security and Key Management (2011). http://www.emvco.com/specifications.aspx?id=223
  2. 2.
    International Organization for Standardization, BS ISO/IEC 14443–1:2008+A1:2012 Identification cards. Contactless integrated circuit cards. Proximity cards. Physical characteristics (2012). http://www.bsol.bsigroup.com
  3. 3.
    International Organization for Standardization, BS ISO/IEC 14443–2:2010+A2:2012 Identification cards. Contactless integrated circuit cards. Proximity cards. Radio frequency power and signal interface (2012). http://www.bsol.bsigroup.com
  4. 4.
    International Organization for Standardization, BS ISO/IEC 7816–4:2013, Identification cards. Integrated circuit cards. Organization, security and commands for interchange (2013). http://www.bsol.bsigroup.com
  5. 5.
    EMV Acquirer and Terminal Security Guidelines (2014). http://www.emvco.com/specifications.aspx?id=71
  6. 6.
    EMV Issuer and Application Security Guidelines (2014). http://www.emvco.com/specifications.aspx?id=71
  7. 7.
    International Organization for Standardization, BS ISO/IEC 14443–3:2011+A6:2014 Identification cards. Contactless integrated circuit cards. Proximity cards. Initialization and anticollision (2014). http://www.bsol.bsigroup.com
  8. 8.
    International Organization for Standardization, BS ISO/IEC 14443–4:2008+A4:2014 Identification cards. Contactless integrated circuit cards. Proximity cards. Transmission protocol (2014). http://www.bsol.bsigroup.com
  9. 9.
    Mobile payment strategies: Remote, contactless & money transfer 2014–2018. Market leading report by Juniper Research, July 2014. http://www.juniperresearch.com/reports.php?id=726
  10. 10.
    EMV Contactless Specifications for Payment Systems, Book A: Architecture and General Requirements (2015). http://www.emvco.com/specifications.aspx?id=21
  11. 11.
    EMV Contactless Specifications for Payment Systems, Book B: Entry Point (2015). http://www.emvco.com/specifications.aspx?id=21
  12. 12.
    EMV Contactless Specifications for Payment Systems, Book C2: Kernel 2 Specification (2015). http://www.emvco.com/specifications.aspx?id=21
  13. 13.
    EMV Contactless Specifications for Payment Systems, Book C3: Kernel 3 Specification (2015). http://www.emvco.com/specifications.aspx?id=21
  14. 14.
    EMV Contactless Specifications for Payment Systems, Book D: Contactless Communication Protocol (2015). http://www.emvco.com/specifications.aspx?id=21
  15. 15.
    Bichler, D., Stromberg, G., Huemer, M., Löw, M.: Key generation based on acceleration data of shaking processes. In: Krumm, J., Abowd, G.D., Seneviratne, A., Strang, T. (eds.) UbiComp 2007. LNCS, vol. 4717, pp. 304–317. Springer, Heidelberg (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brands, S., Chaum, D.: Distance bounding protocols. In: Helleseth, T. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1993. LNCS, vol. 765, pp. 344–359. Springer, Heidelberg (1994) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chong, M.K., Gellersen, H.: How users associate wireless devices. In: Proceedingsof the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2011, pp. 1909–1918. ACM, New York, (2011)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Czeskis, A., Koscher, K., Smith, J.R., Kohno, T.: RFIDs and secret handshakes: defending against ghost-and-leech attacks and unauthorized reads with contextawarecommunications. In: Proceedings of the 15th ACM conference on Computerand communications security, pp. 479–490. ACM (2008)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Drimer, S., Murdoch, S.J.: Keep your enemies close: distance bounding against smartcard relay attacks. In: Proceedings of 16th USENIX Security Symposium on USENIX Security Symposium, SS 2007, pp. 7:1–7:16. USENIX Association, Berkeley (2007)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Emms, M., van Moorsel, A.: Practical attack on contactless payment cards. In: HCI2011 Workshop-Heath, Wealth and Identity Theft (2011)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Francis, L., Hancke, G.P., Mayes, K., Markantonakis, K.: Practical relay attack on contactless transactions by using nfc mobile phones. In: IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, p. 618 (2011)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Halevi, T., Ma, D., Saxena, N., Xiang, T.: Secure proximity detection for nfc devices based on ambient sensor data. In: Foresti, S., Yung, M., Martinelli, F. (eds.) ESORICS 2012. LNCS, vol. 7459, pp. 379–396. Springer, Heidelberg (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hesseldahl, A.: Apple iPhone 4 parts cost about \(\$188\). Bloomberg Business, June 2010. http://www.bloomberg.com/bw/technology/content/jun2010/tc20100627_763714.htm
  24. 24.
    Hinckley, K.: Synchronous gestures for multiple persons and computers. In: Proceedings of the 16th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, UIST 2003, pp. 149–158. ACM, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ion, I., Langheinrich, M., Kumaraguru, P., Čapkun, S.: Influence of user perception, security needs, and social factors on device pairing method choices. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security, SOUPS 2010, pp. 6:1–6:13. ACM, New York (2010)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Keogh, E.J., Pazzani, M.J.: Derivative dynamic time warping. In: The 1st SIAM International Conference on Data Mining (SDM-2001). SIAM, Chicago (2001)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kirovski, D., Sinclair, M., Wilson, D.: The martini synch. Technical report MSR-TR-2007-123, Microsoft Research, September 2007Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kirovski, D., Sinclair, M., Wilson, D.: The martini synch: device pairing via joint quantization. In: IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, 2007. ISIT 2007, pp. 466–470, June 2007Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kobsa, A., Sonawalla, R., Tsudik, G., Uzun, E., Wang, Y.: Serial hook-ups: a comparative usability study of secure device pairing methods. In: Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security, SOUPS 2009, pp. 10:1–10:12. ACM, New York (2009)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Li, H., Ma, D., Saxena, N., Shrestha, B., Zhu, Y.: Tap-Wave-Rub: lightweight malware prevention for smartphones using intuitive human gestures. In: Proceedings of the Sixth ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks, WiSec 2013, pp. 25–30. ACM, New York (2013)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lieb, D.: All good things (2014). http://blog.bu.mp/post/71781606704/all-good-things
  32. 32.
    Liu, J., Zhong, L., Wickramasuriya, J., Vasudevan, V.: uWave: accelerometer-based personalized gesture recognition and its applications. Pervasive Mob. Comput. 5(6), 657–675 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ma, D., Saxena, N., Xiang, T., Zhu, Y.: Location-aware and safer cards: enhancing RFID security and privacy via location sensing. IEEE Trans. Dependable Secure Comput. 10(2), 57–69 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mayrhofer, R.: The candidate key protocol for generating secret shared keys from similar sensor data streams. In: Stajano, F., Meadows, C., Capkun, S., Moore, T. (eds.) ESAS 2007. LNCS, vol. 4572, pp. 1–15. Springer, Heidelberg (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mayrhofer, R., Gellersen, H.-W.: Shake well before use: authentication based on accelerometer data. In: LaMarca, A., Langheinrich, M., Truong, K.N. (eds.) Pervasive 2007. LNCS, vol. 4480, pp. 144–161. Springer, Heidelberg (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mayrhofer, R., Gellersen, H.: Shake well before use: intuitive and secure pairing of mobile devices. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 8(6), 792–806 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Saxena, N., Voris, J.: Still and silent: motion detection for enhanced RFID security and privacy without changing the usage model. In: Ors Yalcin, S.B. (ed.) RFIDSec 2010. LNCS, vol. 6370, pp. 2–21. Springer, Heidelberg (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shrestha, B., Saxena, N., Truong, H.T.T., Asokan, N.: Drone to the rescue: relay-resilient authentication using ambient multi-sensing. In: Christin, N., Safavi-Naini, R. (eds.) FC 2014. LNCS, vol. 8437, pp. 344–359. Springer, Heidelberg (2014) Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Studer, A., Passaro, T., Bauer, L.: Don’t bump, shake on it: the exploitation of a popular accelerometer-based smart phone exchange and its secure replacement. In: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference, ACSAC 2011, pp. 333–342. ACM, New York (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maryam Mehrnezhad
    • 1
  • Feng Hao
    • 1
  • Siamak F. Shahandashti
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Computing ScienceNewcastle UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK

Personalised recommendations