A Mobile Application as an Unobtrusive Tool for Behavioural Mapping in Public Spaces
In any man-made environment, discrepancies may exist between the intent of its design and how it is actually used. Behaviour mapping allows researchers to determine how participants use a designed space by recording participant behaviours and/or tracking their movement within the space itself. Not only the participants’ movements, other characteristics referring to users (e.g. age, gender, cultural background) and variety of circumstantial factors -including the time of a day, the day of the week, the season or weather conditions - may have a dramatic impact on the types of participant behaviours displayed. This paper highlights a new unobtrusive tool for helping behaviour mapping to easily identify patterns of engagements, gather suggestions and environmental factors within public spaces. The tool mainly consists of a smartphone application (app) and a web service. The app, on one hand tracks the way participants use the space, allowing them to get contextual information, answer contextual questions, and to send augmented reality suggestions or complaints. On the other, the web monitors the way participants use the space allowing to visualize participants’ suggestions, answers, or their traces. The tool features and its research ability have been discussed as well as some lessons are expected to be drawn towards building a more participatory and collaborative processes of planning, designing, maintaining and monitoring of urban spaces.
KeywordsGlobal Navigation Satellite System Global Navigation Satellite System Unscented Kalman Filter Behaviour Mapping Global Navigation Satellite System Receiver
This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness under the ESPHIA project (TIN2014-56042-JIN), by Slovenian Research Agency within Programme Spatial Planning (P5-0100), and by the Cost Action TU1306, called CYBERPARKS, with special thanks to Mrs. Ina Šuklje Erjavec for encouraging the short time scientific mission.
- 2.Blankenbach, J., Norrdine, A., Hellmers, H.: Adaptive signal processing for a magnetic indoor positioning system. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (2011)Google Scholar
- 3.Chung, J., Donahoe, M., Schmandt, C., Kim, I.J., Razavai, P., Wiseman, M.: Indoor location sensing using geo-magnetism. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications and Services (MobiSys 2011), pp. 141–154 (2011)Google Scholar
- 5.Goličnik, B., Thompson, C.: People in place: a configuration of physical form and the dynamic patterns of spatial occupancy in urban open public space. Submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, B. Goličnik (2005)Google Scholar
- 8.Goličnik Marušić, B., Marušić, D.: Behavioural maps and GIS in place evaluation and design. In: Application of Geographic Information Systems, 31 October 2012Google Scholar
- 11.Ittelson, W.H., Rivlin, L.G., Proshansky, H.M.: The Use of Behavioral Maps in Environmental Psychology. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York (1970) Google Scholar
- 13.K, A., Adepoju, F.: A model for estimating the real-time positions of a moving object in wireless telemetry applications using RF sensors. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium (2007)Google Scholar
- 16.Pahlavan, K., Levesque, A.H.: Wireless Information Networks. Wiley, New York (1995)Google Scholar
- 17.Sommer, R., Sommer, B.: A Practical Guide to Behavioural Research. Oxford University Press, New York (2002) Google Scholar
- 18.Steiniger, S., Neun, M., Alistair, E.: Foundations of Location Based Services. CartouCHe1-Lecture Notes on LBS 1 (2006)Google Scholar
- 19.Tilch, S., Mautz, R.: Current investigations at the ETH Zurich in optical indoor positioning. In: Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Positioning Navigation and Communication, vol. 7, pp. 174–178 (2010)Google Scholar
- 21.Wakim, C.F., Capperon, S., Oksman, J.: A Markovian model of pedestrian behavior. In: SMC, vol. 4, pp. 4028–4033. IEEE (2004)Google Scholar
- 23.Willert, V.: Optical indoor positioning using a camera phone. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (2010)Google Scholar