Advertisement

Evaluating Different Concurrency Configurations for Executing Multi-Agent Systems

  • Maicon R. Zatelli
  • Alessandro Ricci
  • Jomi F. Hübner
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9318)

Abstract

Reactiveness and performance are important features of Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) and the underlying concurrency model can have a direct impact on them. In multicore programming it is interesting to exploit all the computer cores in order to improve these desirable features. In this paper we perform an experiment to evaluate different concurrency configurations that can be adopted to run an MAS and analyse the effect caused by each configuration on variables like deliberation time and response time. As a result, we identify the advantages and disadvantages for each configuration allowing thus an MAS developer to choose a suitable configuration depending upon the priorities of the application.

References

  1. 1.
    Alberola, J.M., Such, J.M., Garcia-Fornes, A., Espinosa, A., Botti, V.: A performance evaluation of three multiagent platforms. Artif. Intell. Rev. 34(2), 145–176 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Behrens, T.M., Hindriks, K., Hubner, J., Dastani, M.M.: Putting apl platforms to the test: agent similarity and execution performance. Technical report, Clausthal University of Technology (2010)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bellifemine, F., Bergenti, F., Caire, G., Poggi, A.: JADE - a Java agent development framework. In: Bordini, R.H., Dastani, M., Dix, J., Fallah-Seghrouchni, A.E. (eds.) Multi-Agent Programming. Multiagent Systems, Artificial Societies, and Simulated Organizations, vol. 15, pp. 125–147. Springer, New York (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bordini, R.H., Hübner, J.F., Wooldridge, M.: Programming multi-agent systems in AgentSpeak using Jason. Wiley, Liverpool (2007)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Burbeck, K., Garpe, D., Nadjm-Tehrani, S.: Scale-up and performance studies of three agent platforms. In: IPCCC 2004: IEEE International Conference on Performance, Computing, and Communications, Phoenix, AZ, USA, pp. 857–863 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cardoso, R.C., Hübner, J.F., Bordini, R.H.: Benchmarking communication in actor- and agent-based languages. In: Winikoff, M. (ed.) EMAS 2013. LNCS, vol. 8245, pp. 58–77. Springer, Heidelberg (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cardoso, R.C., Zatelli, M.R., Hübner, J.F., Bordini, R.H.: Towards benchmarking actor- and agent-based programming languages. In: Proceedings of the 2013 Workshop on Programming Based on Actors, Agents, and Decentralized Control, AGERE! 2013, pp. 115–126. ACM, New York (2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cicirelli, F., Furfaro, A., Giordano, A., Nigro, L.: Performance of a multi-agent system over a multi-core cluster managed by Terracotta. In Proceedings of the 2011 Symposium on Theory of Modeling & Simulation: DEVS Integrative M&S Symposium, TMS-DEVS 2011, pp. 125–133. Society for Computer Simulation International, San Diego (2011)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cicirelli, F., Furfaro, A., Nigro, L.: An agent infrastructure over HLA for distributed simulation of reconfigurable systems and its application to UAV coordination*. Simulation 85(1), 17–32 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Clark, K., McCabe, F.: Go! - a multi-paradigm programming language for implementing multi-threaded agents. Ann. Math. Artif. Intell. 41(2–4), 171–206 (2004)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    da Costa, A.L., Bittencourt, G.: From a concurrent architecture to a concurrent autonomous agents architecture. In: Veloso, M.M., Pagello, E., Kitano, H. (eds.) RoboCup 1999. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 1856, pp. 274–285. Springer, Heidelberg (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Costa, M., Feijó, B.: An architecture for concurrent reactive agents in real-time animation. In: Brazilian Symposium on Computer Graphics and Image Processing (1996)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dastani, M.: 2APL: a practical agent programming language. Auton. Agent. Multi-Agent Syst. 16(3), 214–248 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    de Giacomo, G., Lespérance, Y., Levesque, H.J.: ConGolog, a concurrent programming language based on the situation calculus. Artif. Intell. 121(1–2), 109–169 (2000)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dennis, L.A., Fisher, M., Webster, M.P., Bordini, R.H.: Model checking agent programming languages. Autom. Softw. Eng. 19(1), 5–63 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Evertsz, R., Fletcher, M., Frongillo, R., Jarvis, J., Brusey, J., Dance, S.: Implementing industrial multi-agent systems using JACK. In: Dastani, M., Dix, J., El Fallah-Seghrouchni, A. (eds.) PROMAS 2003. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3067, pp. 18–48. Springer, Heidelberg (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fernández, V., Grimaldo, F., Lozano, M., Ordua, J.M.: Evaluating Jason for distributed crowd simulations. In: Filipe, J., Fred, A.L.N., Sharp, B. (eds.) ICAART, vol. 2, pp. 206–211. INSTICC Press (2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fernández-Bauset, V., Grimaldo, F., Lozano, M., Orduña, J.M.: Tuning java to run interactive multiagent simulations over jason. In: Li, J. (ed.) AI 2010. LNCS, vol. 6464, pp. 354–363. Springer, Heidelberg (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gonzalez, A., Angel, R., Gonzalez, E.: BDI concurrent architecture oriented to goal managment. In: 2013 8th Computing Colombian Conference (8CCC), pp. 1–6, August 2013Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hindriks, K.V.: Programming rational agents in GOAL. In: El Fallah Seghrouchni, A., Dix, J., Dastani, M., Bordini, R.H. (eds.) Multi-Agent Programming, pp. 119–157. Springer, US (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ingrand, F.F., Georgeff, M.P., Rao, A.S.: An architecture for real-time reasoning and system control. IEEE Expert Intell. Syst. Appl. 7(6), 34–44 (1992)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kostiadis, K., Hu, H.: A multi-threaded approach to simulated soccer agents for the robocup competition. In: Veloso, M.M., Pagello, E., Kitano, H. (eds.) RoboCup 1999. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 1856, pp. 366–377. Springer, Heidelberg (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lee, S.-K., Cho, M., Yoon, H.-J., Eun, S.-B., Yoon, H., Cho, J.-W., Lee, J.: Design and implementation of a multi-threaded TMN agent system. In: Proceedings of International Workshops on Parallel Processing, 1999, pp. 332–337 (1999)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Miller, M.S., Tribble, E.D., Shapiro, J.S.: Concurrency among strangers. In: De Nicola, R., Sangiorgi, D. (eds.) TGC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3705, pp. 195–229. Springer, Heidelberg (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mulet, L., Such, J.M., Alberola, J.M.: Performance evaluation of open-source multiagent platforms. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS 2006, pp. 1107–1109. ACM, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Muscar, A.: Exploring the design space of agent-oriented programming languages. Ph.D. thesis, University of Craiova (2013)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pérez-Carro, P., Grimaldo, F., Lozano, M., Orduòa, J.M.: Characterization of the Jason multiagent platform on multicore processors. Sci. Program. 22(1), 21–35 (2014)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pokahr, A., Braubach, L., Lamersdorf, W.: Jadex: a BDI reasoning engine. In: Bordini, R.H., Dastani, M., Dix, J., Fallah-Seghrouchni, A.E. (eds.) Multi-Agent Programming. Multiagent Systems, Artificial Societies, and Simulated Organizations, vol. 15, pp. 149–174. Springer, US (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rao, A.S.: AgentSpeak(L): BDI agents speak out in a logical computable language. In: Perram, J., Van de Velde, W. (eds.) MAAMAW 1996. LNCS, vol. 1038, pp. 2–55. Springer, Heidelberg (1996) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ricci, A., Santi, A.: Programming abstractions for integrating autonomous and reactive behaviors: an agent-oriented approach. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Edition on Programming Systems, Languages and Applications Based on Actors, Agents, and Decentralized Control Abstractions, AGERE! 2012, pp. 83–94. ACM, New York (2012)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rodriguez, S.A.: From analysis to design of holonic multi-agent systems: a framework, methodological guidelines and applications. Ph.D. thesis, Universit de Technologie de Belfort-Montbliard and Universit de Franche-Compt, December 2005Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sardina, S., De Giacomo, G., Lespérance, Y., Levesque, H.J.: On the semantics of deliberation in Indigolog&Mdash;from theory to implementation. Ann. Math. Artif. Intell. 41(2–4), 259–299 (2004)zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sislák, D., Rehák, M., Pechoucek, M., Pavlícek, D.: Deployment of A-globe multi-agent platform. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS 2006, pp. 1447–1448. ACM, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Thangarajah, J., Padgham, L., Winikoff, M.: Detecting & avoiding interference between goals in intelligent agents. In: Gottlob, G., Walsh, T. (eds.) IJCAI, pp. 721–726. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (2003)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Thangarajah, J., Padgham, L., Winikoff, M.: Detecting & exploiting positive goal interaction in intelligent agents. In: Proceedings of the Second International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS 2003, pp. 401–408. ACM, New York, (2003)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Vrba, P.: JAVA-based agent platform evaluation. In: Mařík, V., McFarlane, D.C., Valckenaers, P. (eds.) HoloMAS 2003. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2744, pp. 47–58. Springer, Heidelberg (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Weerasooriya, D., Rao, A., Ramamohanarao, K.: Design of a concurrent agent-oriented language. In: Wooldridge, M., Jennings, N. (eds.) Intelligent Agents. LNCS, vol. 890, pp. 386–401. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wieczorek, D., Albayrak, Ş.: Open scalable agent architecture for telecommunication applications. In: Albayrak, Ş., Garijo, F.J. (eds.) IATA 1998. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 1437, p. 233. Springer, Heidelberg (1998) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zhang, H., Huang, S.-Y.: A parallel BDI agent architecture. In: IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology, pp. 157–160, September 2005Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zhang, H., Huang, S.Y.: Are parallel BDI agents really better? In: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on ECAI 2006: 17th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence August 29 - September 1, 2006, Riva Del Garda, Italy, pp. 305–309. IOS Press, Amsterdam (2006)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhang, H., Huang, S.-Y.: A general framework for parallel BDI agents. In: IAT, pp. 103–112. IEEE Computer Society (2006)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zhang, H., Huang, S.-Y.: A general framework for parallel BDI agents in dynamic environments. Web Intell. Agent Syst. Int. J. 6, 327–351 (2008)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zheng, G.-P., Hou, Z.-Y., Yin, X.-N.: Research of the agent technology based on multi-thread in transformer substation communication. In: 2006 International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, pp. 56–60 (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maicon R. Zatelli
    • 1
  • Alessandro Ricci
    • 2
  • Jomi F. Hübner
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC)FlorianópolisBrazil
  2. 2.University of BolognaBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations