Advertisement

Coherence Issues Between Climate, Energy and Water in the Case of European Hydropower: Can We Have It All?

  • Jonida AbazajEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The questions of renewable and sustainable energy have attracted increasing attention in the last decades, becoming salient topics on the national and European political agendas. In parallel, hydropower has made an incredible return to the global agenda, after having been absent due to heavy criticism because of its social and environmental impacts. The common denominator for this surge is represented by the need to mitigate climate change and support low-carbon development paths. Drawing on secondary data analysis the chapter investigates the conflict occurring between climate change mitigation through hydropower and the protection of good water quality in the implementation of two EU directives: the Renewable Energy Directive (RES) and the Water Framework Directive (WFD). After a presentation of the evolving policy and regulatory context around hydropower, the paper explores the link between energy-climate-water-sustainability and addresses the trade-offs, synergies and opportunities for policy integration and coherence. The analysis reveals that while synergies between climate and energy are straightforward and clearly stated at the EU level, and that it is possible to track this co-ordination between water and biodiversity, challenges persist in relation to the link between the Climate and renewable energy package and the Water Framework Directive.

Keywords

Sustainability Policy coherence Water framework directive Renewable energy Hydropower 

References

  1. Acreman MC, Ferguson AJD (2010) Environmental flows and the European water framework directive. Freshw Biol 55:32–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bertzky M, Dickson B, Galt R, Glen E, Harley M, Hodgson N, Keder G, Lysenko I, Pooley M., Ravilious C, Sajwaj T, Schiopu R, de Soye Y, Tucker G (2010) Impacts of climate change and selected renewable energy infrastructures on EU biodiversity and the Natura 2000 network: Summary Report. European Commission and International Union for Conservation of Nature, Brussels. Retrieved January 20, 2015, from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/climatechange/pdf/study.pdf
  3. Bilgen S, Kaygusuz K, Sari A (2004) Renewable energy for a clean and sustainable future. Energy Sour 26(12):1119–1129. doi: 10.1080/00908310490441421 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Biermann F, Davies O, van der Grijp N (2009) Environmental policy integration and the architecture of global environmental governance. Int Environ Agreem Polit Law Econom 9(4):351–369. doi: 10.1007/s10784-009-9111-0 Google Scholar
  5. Brouwer S, Rayner T, Huitema D (2013) Mainstreaming climate policy: the case of climate adaptation and the implementation of EU water policy. Environ Plan C Gov Policy 31(1):134–153. doi: 10.1068/c11134 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bunn SE, Arthington AH (2002) Basic principles and ecological consequences of altered flow regimes for aquatic biodiversity. Environ Manage 30(4):492–507. doi: 10.1007/s00267-002-2737-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. CEC (2011a) A resource-efficient Europe—Flagship initiative under the Europe 2020 strategy, COM (2011) 571 final. European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  8. CEC (2011b) SETIS Strategic Energy Technologies Information System/Hydropower: Technology Information Sheet. European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  9. Collier U (1994) Energy and environment in the European Union. Avebury, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  10. Dupont C (2010) Political commitment to climate policy integration at EU Level: the case of biodiversity policy (October 13, 2010), Edinburgh Europa Paper Series 2010/05. Retrieved February 10, 2015, from http://ssrn.com/abstract=1691610
  11. Egré D, Milewski JC (2002) The diversity of hydropower projects. Energy Policy 30(14):1225–1230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. den Hertog L, Stross S (2011, April) Policy coherence in the EU system: concepts and legal rooting of an ambiguous term. Paper presented at the conference “The EU as a Global Player”, University Institute for European Studies, Madrid, SpainGoogle Scholar
  13. EC (European Commission) (2001) European Governance, A White Paper. Retrieved January 24, 2015, from http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/com/cne/2001/com2001_0428en01.pdf
  14. EC (European Commission) (2004) National sustainable development strategies in the European Union: a first analysis by the European Commission. Commission Staff Working Document. Retrieved January 24, 2015, from http://europe.eu.int/comm/sustainable/docs/sustainable_development_strategies.pdf
  15. EC (European Commission) (2007) Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council—Towards sustainable water management in the European Union—First stage in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC—[SEC(2007) 362] [SEC(2007) 363]Google Scholar
  16. EC (European Commission) (2008) Climate change and water, CIS Policy Paper. Retrieved January 24, 2015, from https://circabc.europa.eu/sd/a/eada3719-bc27-4d4e-b3ef-12e21f473924/Final%20Policy%20Paper.pdf
  17. EC (European Commission) (2009a) Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Region—20 20 by 2020 Europe’s climate change opportunity. European Union, Brussels, Belgium. Retrieved January 24, 2015, from http://www.energy.eu/directives/com2008_0030en01.pdf
  18. EC (European Commission) (2009b) Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, of 23 April 2009, on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC. European Union, Brussels (OJ L 140, 5.6.2009)Google Scholar
  19. EC (European Commission) (2009c) Beyond 2010-options for EU biodiversity policy (MEMO/09/177, 23 April 2009). Retrieved January 24, 2015, from http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/09/177
  20. EC (European Commission) (2009d) Common implementation strategy for the water framework directive. Guidance document no. 20. Guidance document on exemptions to the environmental objectives. Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. Retrieved February 22, 2015, from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-framework/objectives/pdf/Guidance_document_20.pdf
  21. EC (European Commission) (2009e) The Message from Athens. 27–28 April 2009. Athens: European Commission Publications Office. Retrieved March 22, 2015, from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/archives/nature/biodiversity/conference/pdf/message_final.pdf
  22. EC (European Commission) (2009f) Common implementation strategy for the water framework directive. Guidance document no. 24: river basin management in a changing climate, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. Retrieved February 22, 2015, from https://circabc.europa.eu/sd/a/a88369ef-df4d-43b1-8c8c-306ac7c2d6e1/Guidance%20document%20n%2024%20-%20River%20Basin%20Management%20in%20a%20Changing%20Climate_FINAL.pdf
  23. EC (European Commission) (2011a) Our life insurance, our natural capital: an EU biodiversity strategy to 2020 (3.05.2011). COM(2011) 244 final. Retrieved February 22, 2015, from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/biodiversity/comm2006/pdf/2020/1_EN_ACT_part1_v7%5b1%5d.pdf
  24. EC (European Commission) (2011b) Guidance document: Wind energy developments and Natura 2000. October 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2015, from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/natura2000/management/docs/Wind_farms.pdf
  25. EC (European Commission) (2012) Report from the commission to the European parliament and the council on the implementation of the water framework directive (2000/60/EC) River Basin Management Plans (Text with EEA relevance) Brussels, 14.11.2012 COM(2012) 670 final. Retrieved January 22, 2015, from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52012DC0670&from=EN
  26. EC (European Commission) (2013a) Green paper A 2030 framework for climate and energy policies Brussels, 27.3.2013 (COM(2013) 169 final), Retrieved February 22, 2015, from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52013DC0169&from=EN
  27. EC (European Commission) (2013b) Guidance on Integrating Climate Change and Biodiversity into Strategic Environmental Assessment, European Union. Retrieved February 22, 2015, from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/pdf/SEA%20Guidance.pdf
  28. EC (European Commission) (2014) Guidance Document “Streamlining environmental assessment procedures for energy infrastructure ‘Projects of Common Interest’ (PCIs)”, European Commission. Retrieved February 22, 2015, from http://www.nepp.ie/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/20130919_pci-en-guidance.pdf
  29. Ecologic (2009) Heavily Modified Water Bodies: ‘Information Exchange on Designation, Assessment of Ecological Potential, Objective Setting and Measures’. Discussion paper prepared on behalf of the workshop “Common Implementation Strategy Workshop Brussels, 12–13 March 2009” co-organisers of Germany, UK and the EC. Ecologic: Berlin. Retrieved February 22, 2015, from http://www.ecologic-events.de/hmwb/documents/Discussion_Paper_Updated.pdf
  30. Ellison D (2010) Addressing Adaptation in the EU Policy Framework. In: Keskitalo ECH (ed) Developing adaptation policy and practice in Europe: Multi-level governance of climate change. Springer, Netherlands, pp 39–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Environment Council of the EU (2010) Environment Council conclusions of 15 March 2010. Retrieved February 26, 2015, from http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/en/envir/113373.pdf
  32. EU (European Union) (2000) Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. Official J Eur Communities L327: 1–73 Google Scholar
  33. EU (European Union) (2009) Towards a Strategy on Climate Change, Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity: A Discussion Paper Prepared by the EU Ad Hoc Expert Working Group on Biodiversity and Climate Change. Working with Nature. Retrieved February 28, 2015, from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/pdf/discussion_paper_climate_change.pdf
  34. EU (European Union) (2014) Decision No 1386/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 November 2013 on a General Union Environment Action Programme to 2020 ‘Living well, within the limits of our planet’, Text with EEA relevance. OJ L 354, 28.12.2013, pp. 171–200. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. doi: 10.2779/66315
  35. Eurelectric (2011a) National renewable energy action plans: an industry analysis. Retrieved January 13, 2015, from http://www.eurelectric.org/media/26710/resap_nreap_report_-_final_8-11-11-2011-135-0001-01-e.pdf
  36. Eurelectric (2011b). Hydro in Europe: powering renewables, Eurelectric WG Hydro. Retrieved January 13, 2015, from http://www.eurelectric.org/media/26690/hydro_report_final-2011-160-0011-01-e.pdf
  37. European Communities (1997) Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty on European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related Acts.  Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. ISBN 92-828-1652-4Google Scholar
  38. European Council (1992) Habitats Directive. Consolidated version of Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora (OJ L 206, 22.7.1992, p. 7)Google Scholar
  39. European Council (2001) Directive 2001/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 June 2001 on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment (OJ L 197, 21.7.2001)Google Scholar
  40. European Council (2009b) Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on the conservation of wild birds (OJ L 20, 26.1.2010, p. 7), which is the codified version of the original Birds Directive, Council Directive 79/409/EEC of 2 April 1979 on the conservation of wild birds (OJ L 103, 25.4.1979)Google Scholar
  41. EEA (European Environment Agency) (2009) Water resources across Europe—confronting water scarcity and drought. Copenhagen: EEAGoogle Scholar
  42. EEA (European Environment Agency) (2010) The European Environment—State and Outlook 2010—Synthesis. EEA, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  43. ‪EEA (European Environment Agency) (2015) The European environment—State and Outlook 2015‪.‬ EEA, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  44. Fearnside PM, Pueyo S (2012) Underestimating greenhouse-gas emissions from tropical dams. Nat Clim Change 2:382–384. doi: 10.1038/nclimate1540 Google Scholar
  45. Fletcher R (2010) When Environmental Issues Collide: Climate Change and the Shifting Political Ecology of Hydroelectric Power. Peace & Conflict Review, 5(1). Retrieved March 12, 2015, from http://www.review.upeace.org/pdf.cfm?articulo=106&ejemplar=20
  46. Forseth T, Harby A (eds) 2014 Handbook for environmental design in regulated salmon rivers. NINA Special Report 53, 1–90Google Scholar
  47. Frey GW, Linke DM (2002) Hydropower as a renewable and sustainable energy resource meeting global energy challenges in a reasonable way. Energy Policy 30:1261–1265. doi: 10.1016/S0301-4215(02)00086-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Groom B, Grosjean P, Kontoleon A, Swanson T, Zhang S (2010) Relaxing rural constraints: a “win-win” policy for poverty and environment in China? Oxford Econ Pap 62:132–156. doi: 10.1093/oep/gpp021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Henriksen CB, Hussey K, Holm PE (2011) Exploiting soil-management strategies for climate mitigation in the European Union: maximizing “win–win” solutions across policy regimes. Ecol Soc 16(4):22. doi: 10.5751/ES-04176-160422 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Howe C, Suich H, Vira B, Mace GM (2014) Creating win-wins from trade-offs? Ecosystem services for human well-being: A meta-analysis of ecosystem service trade-offs and synergies in the real world. Glob Environ Change 28:263–275. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.07.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. ICPDR (International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River) (2013) Guiding Principles on Sustainable Hydropower Development in the Danube Basin, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  52. IHA (International Hydropower Association) (2003) The role of hydropower in sustainable Development. IHA White Paper, February, 1–140Google Scholar
  53. IRENA (International Renewable Energy Agency) (2012) Renewable energy technologies—cost analysis series, volume 1: power sector, IRENA Working Paper 3/5Google Scholar
  54. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2013) Climate policymakers. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  55. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2014) Climate change 2014: mitigation of climate change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/UK and New York/USAGoogle Scholar
  56. Jackson A (2011) Renewable energy vs. biodiversity: policy conflicts and the future of nature conservation. Glob Environ Change 21(4):1195–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jordan A, Schout A (2006) The coordination of the European Union. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jordan A, Lenschow A (eds) (2008) Innovation in environmental policy? Integrating the Environment for Sustainability. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham UKGoogle Scholar
  59. Kampa E, von der Weppen J, Dworak T (2011) Water management, Water Framework Directive & Hydropower, Common Implementation Strategy Workshop, Brussels, 13–14 September 2011. Issue Paper (final version). Retrieved January 15, 2015, from http://www.ecologic-events.eu/hydropower2/documents/IssuePaper_final.pdf
  60. Kaunda CS, Kimambo CZ, Nielsen TK (2012) Hydropower in the context of sustainable energy supply: a review of technologies and challenges. International Scholarly Research Network ISRN Renewable Energy, Volume 2012, Article ID 730631Google Scholar
  61. Kivimaa P, Mickwitz P (2009) Making the Climate Count: Climate Policy Integration and Coherence in Finland. Finnish Environment Institute, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  62. Knudsen JK (2009) Environmental policy integration and energy. conceptual clarification and comparative analysis of standards and mechanisms. Universiteit Twente/CSTM, TwenteCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lafferty WM (ed) (2004) Governance for sustainable development. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UKGoogle Scholar
  64. Lafferty WM, Hovden E (2003) Environmental policy integration: towards an analytical framework. Environ Polit 12(3):1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lenschow A (ed) (2002a) Environmental policy integration: greening sectoral policies in Europe. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  66. Lenschow A (2002b) Greening the European Union: an introduction. In: Lenschow A (ed) Environmental policy integration: greening sectoral policies in Europe. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  67. Liberatore A (1997) The integration of sustainable development objectives into EU policy-making: Barriers and prospects. In: Baker S, Kousis M, Richardson D and Young S (eds) The politics of sustainable development: Theory, policy and practice within the European Union. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  68. Locker H (2004) Environmental Issues and Management for Hydropower Peaking Operations. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-ESA), New YorkGoogle Scholar
  69. Maeck A, DelSontro T, McGinnis DF, Fischer H, Flury S, Schmidt M, Fietzek P, Lorke A (2013) Sediment trapping by dams creates methane emission hot spots. Environ Sci Technol 47:8130–8137Google Scholar
  70. Mant R, Perry E, Heath M, Munroe R, Väänänen E, Großheim C, Kümper-Schlake L (2014) Addressing climate change—Why biodiversity matters. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. Retrieved March 25, 2015, from http://www.unep-wcmc.org/system/dataset_file_fields/files/000/000/221/original/IKI_report_2_accessible_version_20140530.pdf?1401884844
  71. Massey E, Huitema D, Jordan A, Rayner T (2010) Adaptation in the water sector: will mainstreaming be sufficient? In: Jordan AJ, Huitema D, van Asselt H, Rayner T, Berkhout F (eds) Climate change policy in the European Union: confronting the dilemmas of mitigation and adaptation?. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 167–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mauerhofer V (2013) The ‘Governance-Check’: Assessing the sustainability of public spatial decision-making structures. Land Use Policy 30(1):328–336. doi: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2012.03.016 Google Scholar
  73. McCully P (1996) Silenced rivers: the politics and the ecology of large dams. Zed Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  74. McShane TO, Hirsch PD, Trung TC, Songorwa AN, Kinzig A, Monteferri B, Mutekanga D, Hoang TV, Dammert JL, Pulgar-Vidal M, Welch-Devine M, Brosius JP, Coppolillo P, O’Connor S (2011) Hard choices: making trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and human well-being. Biol Conserv 144(3):966–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Meijers E, Stead D (2004) Policy integration: what does it mean and how can it be achieved? A multi- disciplinary review. Paper presented at the Berlin Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change: Greening of Policies—Interlinkages and Policy Integration. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://www.fu-berlin.de/ffu/akumwelt/bc2004/download/meijers_stead_f.pdf
  76. Mekonnen MM, Gerbens-Leenes PW, Hoekstra AY (2015) The consumptive water footprint of electricity and heat: a global assessment. Environ Sci Water Res Technol 1:285–297. doi: 10.1039/c5ew00026b CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Moomaw W, Yamba F, Kamimoto M, Maurice L, Nyboer J, Urama K, Weir T (2011) Introduction. In: Edenhofer O, Pichs-Madruga R, Sokona Y, Seyboth K, Matschoss P, Kadner S, Zwickel T, Eickemeier P, Hansen G, Schlömer S, von Stechow C (eds) IPCC special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  78. Nilsson M, Persson A (2003) Framework for analysing environmental policy integration. J Environ Planning Policy Manage 5(4):333–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Nilsson M, Zamparutti T, Petersen JE, Nykvist B, Rudberg P, McGuinn J (2012) Understanding policy coherence: analytical framework and examples of sector-environment policy interactions in the EU. Environ Policy Gov 22(6):395–423. doi: 10.1002/eet.1589 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. OECD (1995) Planning for sustainable development: country experiences. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  81. OECD (1996) Building policy coherence: tools and tensions. Public Management Occasional Papers, No. 12. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  82. OECD (2001) Sustainable development: critical issues. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  83. OECD (2002) Improving policy coherence and integration for sustainable development: a checklist. OECD Policy brief October 2002. Retrieved February 12, 2015, from http://78.41.128.130/dataoecd/61/19/2763153.pdf
  84. OECD (2011) Policy coherence between water, energy and agriculture. Working Party on Biodiversity, Water and Ecosystems, 10–11 March 2011Google Scholar
  85. Opperman JJ, Royte J, Banks J, Day LR, Apse C (2011) The Penobscot River, Maine, USA: a basin-scale approach to balancing power generation and ecosystem restoration. Ecol Soc 16(3):7. URL: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5751/ES-04117-160307
  86. Oud E (2002) The evolving context for hydropower development. Energy Policy 30:1215–1223  Google Scholar
  87. Pataki G, High C, Nemes G (2011) Report on the policy and governance context for adaptation. CLIMSAVE deliverable. Retrieved February 12, 2015, from http://www.climsave.eu/climsave/outputs.html
  88. Persson Å (2004) Environmental policy integration: an introduction. PINTS—Policy Integration for Sustainability. Background Paper. Stockholm Environment Institute—SEI, Stockholm (ISBN: 91 975237 1 2)Google Scholar
  89. Peters G (1998) Managing horizontal government: the politics of co-ordination. Public Adm 76(2):295–311. doi: 10.1111/1467-9299.00102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pittock J (2011) National climate change policies and sustainable water management: conflicts and synergies. Ecol Soc 16(2):25. URL:http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol16/iss2/art25/
  91. Rodriguez JP, Beard Jr. TD, Bennett EM, Cumming GS, Cork SJ, Agard J, Dobson AP, Peterson GD (2006) Trade-offs across space, time, and ecosystem services. Ecol Soc 11(1):28. URL:http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss1/art28/
  92. Rosenberg DM, Bodaly RA, Usher PJ (1995) Environmental and social impacts of large scale hydroelectric development: who is listening? Glob Environ Change 5(2):127–148. doi: 10.1016/0959-3780(95)00018-J CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Saunders, Harry D (October 1992) The Khazzoom-Brookes postulate and neoclassical growth. Energy J 13(4):131–148. Retrieved May 17, 2015, from http://www.iaee.org/en/publications/ejarticle.aspx?id=1091
  94. Sorrel S (2009) Jevons’ Paradox revisited: the evidence for backfire from improved energy efficiency. Energy Policy 37:1456–1469Google Scholar
  95. Sternberg R (2008) Hydropower: dimensions of social and environmental coexistence. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 12, 1588–1621. Retrieved March 28, 2015, from https://www.pik-potsdam.de/news/public-events/archiv/alter-net/former-ss/2009/working-groups/literature/w-sternberg.pdf Google Scholar
  96. Truffer B, Markard J, Bratrich C, Wehrli B (2001) Green electricity from alpine hydropower plants. Mountain Res Dev 21(1):19–24, Retrieved March 22, 2015, from http://www.mtnforum.org/sites/default/files/publication/files/5954.pdf Google Scholar
  97. UNCBD (2002) COP 6 Decision VI/26 (7–19 April 2002). Retrieved March 17, 2015, from http://www.cbd.int/doc/decisions/cop-06-dec-en.pdf
  98. UNCED (1992) Agenda 21. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  99. UNESCO (2003) Water for people-water for life. UNESCO, Paris/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  100. Urwin K, Jordan A (2008) Does public policy support or undermine climate change adaptation? Exploring policy interplay across different scales of governance. Glob Environ Change 18:180–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Van Bommel S, Kuindersma W (2008) Policy integration, coherence and governance in Dutch climate policy: a multi-level analysis of mitigation and adaptation policy report 1799. Wageningen, AlterraGoogle Scholar
  102. van Ginneken M (2015) A decade of sustainable hydropower development—What have we learned? HydroWorld.com article of 02/17/2015. Retrieved April 29, 2015, from http://www.hydroworld.com/articles/print/volume-23/issue-1/articles/a-decade-of-sustainable-hydropower-development-what-have-we-learned.html
  103. Water Directors (2010) Final synthesis of informal meeting of water and marine directors of the European Union, Candidate and EFTA Countries, Segovia, 27–28 May 2010Google Scholar
  104. WCED (World Commission on Environment and Development) (eds) (1987) Our common future. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  105. Wilby RL, Orr HG, Hedger M, Forrow D, Blackmore M (2006) Risks posed by climate change to the delivery of Water Framework Directive objectives in the UK. Environ Int 32:1043–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Winship C (2006) Policy analysis as puzzle-solving. In: Moran M, Goodin RE, Rein M (eds) Oxford handbook of public policy (pp. 109–124). Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  107. WWAP (United Nations World Water Assessment Programme) (2015) The United Nations world water development report 2015: Water for a Sustainable World. UNESCO, Paris. Retrieved May 5, 2015, from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002318/231823E.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Industrial Economics and Technology ManagementNorwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)TrondheimNorway

Personalised recommendations