Flame Interaction with Obstacles

  • Nickolai M. RubtsovEmail author
Part of the Heat and Mass Transfer book series (HMT)


It was shown that spark-initiated flames of hydrogen air mixtures (8–15 % Н2) pass through the close-meshed aluminum spherical obstacles with cell size 0.04-0.1 mm2; the flame of 15 % Н2 in the air after obstacle is accelerated; acoustic gas fluctuations occur in the reactor. The flame of 8 % natural gas–air mixture is not accelerated after obstacle; acoustic fluctuations are missing. It was shown that active centers of methane and hydrogen combustion, determining flame propagation, have different chemical nature. It was shown that spark-initiated flames of diluted stoichiometric natural gas–oxygen mixtures in close-meshed aluminum spheres with mesh size 0.1–0.2 mm2 do not propagate through the spheres, but always propagate through planar meshed obstacles of the same mesh size. It was found that the features of flame propagation at simultaneous initiation at opposite butt-ends of the cylindrical reactor differ markedly from those at initiation from a single discharge. It is shown that the increase in warming up in hydrocarbons сombustion at simultaneous initiation at opposite butt-ends of a cylindrical reactor by a factor of ~ 2 as compared to flame propagation from a single initiation source is due to two-stage nature of the combustion process. It was shown that ignition of diluted methane–oxygen mix (total pressure up to 200 Torr) after a single obstacle can be observed markedly far from an obstacle surface. The use of the meshed sphere as an obstacle leads to increase in the distance of flame emergence behind an obstacle in comparison with a round opening; two or more close-meshed obstacles strongly suppress flame propagation. It is experimentally shown that under the same conditions the limit of penetration of diluted methane oxygen flame through a confuser is markedly less than in the case of a plain orifice and is even less than in the case of a diffuser. Therefore, the diffuser is the most effective flame arrester.


Flame Hydrogen Methane Oxidation Close meshed obstacles Plain orifice Diffuser Confuser Acceleration Compression 


  1. 1.
    Teodorczyk, Α., Lee, J.H.S., Knystautas, R.: The structure of fast turbulent flames in very rough, obstacle-filled channels. In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (Int.) on Combustion, p. 735. The Combustion Institute (1990)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gorev, V.A., Miroshnikov, S.N.: Accelerating combustion in gaseous volumes. Russ. J. Chem. Phys. B 6, 854 (1982) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moen, I.O., Donato, Μ., Knystautas, R., Lee, J.H., Wagner, H.G.: Turbulent flame propagation and acceleration in the presence of obstacles, in gasdynamics of detonations and explosions. Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 75, 33 (1981)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wagner, H.G.: Some experiments about flame acceleration. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Fuel-Air Explosions, p. 77. SM Study 16, University of Waterloo Press, Montreal (1981)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nikolayev, Y.A., Topchiyan, M.E.: Calculation of equilibrium flows in detonation waves and gases. Phys. Combust. Explos. 13, 393 (1977) (in Russian)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zel’dovich, Y.B., Barenblatt, G.A., Librovich, V.B., Machviladze, D.V.: Mathematical Theory of Flame Propagation. Nauka, Moscow (1980) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sokolik, A.S.: Self-ignition, Flame and Detonation in Gases. Ed Academy of Sciences USSR, Moscow (1960)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fischer, V., Pantow, E., Kratzel, T.: Propagation, decay and re-ignition of detonations in technical structures. In: Roy, G.D., Frolov, S.M., Kailasanath, K., Smirnov, N.N. (eds.) Gaseous and Heterogeneous Detonations: Science to Applications, p. 331. ENAS Publishers, Moscow (1999)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lewis, B., Von Elbe, G.: Combustion, Explosions and Flame in Gases. Acadamic Press, New York (1987)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dahoe, A.E.: Laminar burning velocities of hydrogen–air mixtures from closed vessel gas explosions. J. Loss Prevent. Proc. Ind. 18, 152 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rubtsov, N.M., Kotelkin, V.D., Seplyarskii, B.S., Tsvetkov, G.I., Chernysh, V.I.: Investigation into the combustion of lean hydrogen–air mixtures at atmospheric pressure by means of high-speed cinematography. Mendeleev Commun. 21, 215 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rubtsov, N.M., Seplyarsky, B.S., Tsvetkov, G.I., Chernysh, V.I.: Numerical investigation of the effects of surface recombination and initiation for laminar hydrogen flames at atmospheric pressure. Mendeleev Commun. 18, 220 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rubtsov, N.M., Seplyarsky, B.S., Troshin, K.Y., Tsvetkov, G.I., Chernysh, V.I.: Chain ignition of mixtures of propane and pentane with air in a heated reactor. Russ. J. Phys. Chem. A 85, 1932 ( 2011)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Al-Shahrany, A.S., Bradley, D., Lawes, M., Liu, K., Woolley, R.: Darrieus-Landau and thermo-acoustic instabilities in closed vessel explosions. Combust. Sci. Technol. 178, 1771 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rubtsov, N.M., Tsvetkov, G.I., Chernysh, V.I.: Different effects of active minor admixtures on hydrogen and methane ignitions. Kinet. Catal. (Engl. Transl.) 49, 344 (2008)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rubtsov, N.M., Seplyarskii, B.S., Tsvetkov, G.I., Chernysh, V.I.: Effect of added reactive agents on the flame propagation velocity in rich hydrogen–air mixtures. Theor. Found. Chem. Eng. (Engl. Transl.) 42, 882 (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rubtsov, N.M., Seplyarskii, B.S., Troshin, K.Y., Chernysh, V.I., Tsvetkov, G.I.: Initiation and propagation of laminar spherical flames at atmospheric pressure. Mendeleev Commun. 21, 218 (2011)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rubtsov, N.M., Seplyarskii, B.S., Troshin, K.Y., Chernysh, V.I., Tsvetkov, G.I.: Investigation into spontaneous ignition of hydrogen–air mixtures in a heated reactor at atmospheric pressure by high-speed cinematography. Mendeleev Commun. 22, 222 (2012)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rubtsov, N.M., Seplyarskii, B.S., Troshin, K.Y., Chernysh, V.I., Tsvetkov, G.I.: High-speed color cinematography of the spontaneous ignition of propane–air and n-pentane–air mixtures. Mendeleev Commun. 21, 31 (2011)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rubtsov, N.M., Sepljarsky, B.S., Naboko, I.M., Chernysh, V.I., Tsvetkov, G.I.: Interaction of spherical flames of hydrogen-air and methane-air mixtures in the closed reactor at the central spark initiation with closed meshed obstacles. J. Aeronaut. Aerospace. Eng. 2, 5. (2013)
  21. 21.
    Flamm, L., Mache, H.: Combustion of an explosive gas mixture within a closed vessel. Wien: Ber. Akad. Wiss. 126, 9–16 (1917)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kovacs, J.S.: Standing Waves, Peter Signell for Project PHYSMESHED. Physics-Astronomy Bldg., Mich. State Univ., E. Lansing, MI 48824. (2002)
  23. 23.
    Ellis, O.C., Wheeler, R.V.: Explosion in closed cylinders. Part III. The manner of movement of flame. J. Chem. Soc. CCCCXXVI, 3215 (1928)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Salamandra, G.D., Bazhenova, T.V., Naboko, I.M.: Formation of detonation wave during combustion of gas in combustion tube. Proc. Combust. Inst. 7, 851 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schmidt, E.H.W., Steinecke, H., Neubert, U.: Flame and schlieren photographs of combustion waves in tubes. Proc. Combust. Inst. 4, 658 (1952)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Guénoche, H.: Flame propagation in tubes and in closed vessels. In: Markstein, G.H. (ed.) Non-steady Flame Propagation, p. 107. Pergamon, Berlin (1964)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Landau, L.: On the theory of slow combustion. Acta Phys.-Chim. URSS 19, 77 (1944)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Clanet, C., Searby, G.: First experimental study of the Darrieus-Landau instability. Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 3867 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Naboko, I.M., Rubtsov, N.M., Seplyarskii, B.S., Chernysh, V.I., Tsvetkov, G.I.: Interaction of the laminar flames of methane–air mixtures with close-meshed spherical and planar obstacles in a closed cylindrical reactor under spark discharge initiation. Mendeleev Commun. 23, 163 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kristoffersen, K.: Gas explosions in process pipes. Telemark University College, Faculty of Technology, Porsgrunn, Norway. Dr. Ing, Thesis (2004)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Naboko, I.M., Rubtsov, N.M., Seplyarskii, B.S., Chernysh, V.I., Tsvetkov, G.I.: Cellular combustion at the transition of a spherical flame front to a flat front at the initiated ignition of methane–air, methane–oxygen and n-pentane–air mixtures. Mendeleev Commun. 23, 358 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Akkerman, V., Bychkov, V., Petchenko, A., Eriksson, L.E.: Flame oscillations in tubes with nonslip at the walls. Combust. Flame 145, 675–687 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Clavin, P.: Premixed combustion and gasdynamics. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 26, 321–352 (1994)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Clanet, C., Searby, G., Clavin, P.: Primary acoustic instability of flames propagating in tubes: cases of spray and premixed gas combustion. J. Fluid Mech. 385, 157 (1999)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Majda, A.: Equations for Low Mach Number Combustion. Center of Pure and Applied Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, PAM-112 (1982)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nicoud, F.: Conservative high-order finite-difference schemes for low-Mach number flows. J. Comput. Phys. 158, 71 (2000)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Backstrom, G.: Simple Fields of Physics by Finite Element Analysis. GB Publishing (2005)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Banerjee, S., Mukhopadhyay, A., Sen, S., Ganguly, R.: Natural convection in a bi-heater configuration of passive electronic cooling. Int. J. Thermal Sci. 47(11), 1516Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hargrave, G.K., Jarvis, S.J., Williams, T.C.: A study of transient flow turbulence generation during flame/wall interactions in explosions. Meas. Sci. Technol. 2002, 13 (1036)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gubba, S.R., Ibrahim, S.S., Malalasekera, W., Masri, A.R.: LES modeling of premixed deflagrating flames in a small-scale vented explosion chamber with a series of solid obstructions. Combust. Sci. Technol. 180(10–11), 1936 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ardey, N., Mayinger, F.: Highly turbulent hydrogen flames. In: Proceedings of the 1st Trabson Internatinal Energy and Environment Symposium, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabson, Turkey, p. 679 (1996)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Durst, B., Ardey, N., Mayinger, F.: OECD/NEA/CSNI Workshop on the Implementation of Hydrogen Mitigation Techniques, Winnipeg, Manitoba, AECL-11762, p. 433 (1996)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jourdan, M., Ardey, N., Mayinger, F., Carcassi, M.: Influence of turbulence on the deflagrative flame propagation in lean premixed hydrogen air mixtures, heat transfer. In Proceedings of the 11th IHTC, Kuongju, Korea, vol. 7, p. 295 (1998)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gussak, L.A., Turkish, M.C.: LAG stratiff. Charge engines. In: Proceedings of the First Mechanical Conference Publication, London, p. 137 (1976)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Abdullin, R.C., Babkin, V.S., Senachin, P.K.: Gaseous combustion in communicating vessels. Fizika Gorenia i Vzryva 2, 3 (1988) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Yamaguchi, S., Ohiwa, N., Hasegawa, T.: Ignition and burning process in divided chamber bomb. Combust. Flame 59(2), 177–187 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Naboko, I.M., Rubtsov, N.M., Sepljarsky, B.S., Chernysh, V.I., Tsvetkov G.I.: Interaction of spherical flames of hydrogen-air and methane-air mixtures initiated with a spark discharge in the closed reactor at the central spark initiation with closed meshed obstacles. Physicochem. Kinet. Gas Dynam. 13, C.1–12. (2012)
  48. 48.
    Lopez, O.D., Moser, R., Ezekoye, O.A.: High-order finite difference scheme for the numerical solution of the low Mach-number equations. Mecánica Computacional XXV, 1127 (2006)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rubtsov, N.M., Seplyarskii, B.S., Naboko, I.M., Chernysh, V.I., Tsvetkov, G.I., Troshin, K.Y.: Non-steady propagation of single and counter flames in hydrogen–oxygen and natural gas–oxygen mixtures in closed cylindrical vessels with spark initiation in initially motionless gas. Mendeleev Commun. 24, 308 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zel’dovich, Y.B.: Selected works, Chemical physics and hydrodynamics, Moscow, Nauka (1984) (in Russian)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jordan, M., Ardey, N., Mayinger, F.: Effect of the molecular and turbulent transport on flame acceleration within confinements. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Heat Transfer Conference, Kjongju, Korea (1997)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Griffiths, J.F., Barnard, J.A.: Flame and Combustion, 3rd edn, 328 pp. CRC Press, (1995)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Abdel-Gayed, R.G., Bradley, D., Lawes, M.: Turbulent burning velocities. A general correlation in terms of straining rates. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A. 414, 389–413 (1987)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bradley, D., Abdel-Gayed, R.G., Lung, F.K.-K.: Combustion regime and the straining of turbulent premixed flames. Combust. Flame 76, 213 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Baer, M.R., Gross, R.J.: Sandia report, Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 (2001)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ardey, N., Durst, B., Mayinger, F.: Influence of flame-obstacle interaction on the structure of turbulent deflagrations. In: Proceedings of the of the International Cooperative Exchange Meeting on Hydrogen and reactor Safety, Toronto (1997)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Rubtsov, N.M., Seplyarskii, B.S., Chernysh, V.I., Tsvetkov, G.I.: Flame propagation limits in H2 + air mixtures in the presence of small inhibitor additives. Mendeleev Commun. 18, 105 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Russian Academy of SciencesInstitute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials ScienceMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations