Advertisement

Neurological Disorders and Related Problems in the Elderly

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Chapter
  • 1.9k Downloads

Abstract

Normal ageing is associated with both structural and functional changes in the brain and spinal cord. The changes in the brain include cerebral atrophy, neuronal loss, decrease in neurotransmitters and cerebral blood flow. As age advances, there is increasing diminution in the number of motor neurons in the spinal cord. The functional and morphological changes of the peripheral nervous system are deeply affected by ageing. The structural changes in the brain and spinal cord have functional implications. Ageing influences cognition, sensory and affective processes and memory. Parkinson’s disease is caused by degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra with accumulation of alpha-synuclein in the neuronal perikarya and neuronal processes. In multisystem atrophy, the hallmark is the formation of glial cytoplasmic inclusions in the oligodendroglia and staining positive for alpha-synuclein. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, there is progressive degeneration and death of anterior horn cells, corticospinal tract and/or bulbar nuclei. Neuropathy is pathologically classified on the specific cell type, namely, neurons (the neuronopathies), axon (axonopathies) and demyelinating neuropathies. In myasthenia gravis, there is blockade of the binding site for acetylcholine. Included in the chapter are related disorders such as sleep disorders, headache, memory loss, chronic pain and gait disorders in the elderly.

Keywords

Age-related changes Parkinson’s disease Multisystem atrophy Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Peripheral neuropathy Neuromuscular transmission Gait disorders 

References

Anatomical and Physiological Changes with Ageing

  1. 1.
    Aderton BH. Ageing of the brain. Mech Ageing Dev. 2002;123(7):811–7 (abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Peters R. Ageing and the brain. Postgrad Med J. 2006;82(964):84–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scahill R, Frost C, Jenkins R, Whitwel JL, Rossr MN, Fox NC. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal ageing using serial registered magnetic resonance imaging. Arch Neurol. 2003;60:989–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aderton BH. Changes in the ageing brain in health and disease. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1997;352(1363):1781–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Raz N, Rodrique KN. Differential aging of the brain: patterns cognitive correlates and modifiers. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2006;30:730–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Troller J, Valenzuela M. Brain ageing in the new millennium. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2001;35:788–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Raz N, Rodrique KM, Acker D. Hypertension and the brain: vulnerability of prefrontal regions and executive functions. Behav Neurosci. 2003;17:1169–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Artero S, Tiemeier H, Prins ND, Sabatier R, Breteler MM, Ritchie K, et al. Neuroanatomical localisation and clinical correlates of white matter lesions in the elderly. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:1304–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lexell J. Evidence for nervous system degeneration with advancing age. J Nutr. 1997;127(5):10115–35.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tomlinson BE, Irving D. The number of limb motor neurons in the human lumbosacral cord throughout life. J Neurol Sci. 1977;34:213–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kawamura Y, O’Brien PC, Okazaki H, Duyck PJ. Lumber motor neurones of man. II. Numbers and diameter distributions of large and intermediate-diameter cytons in motor neuron columns of spinal cord of man. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1997;36:860–70.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Esiri MM. Aging and the brain. J Pathol. 2007;211:181–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Knight J, Nigam Y. Exploring the anatomy and physiology of aging. Part 5. Nurs Times. 2008;104(35):18–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Verdu E, Ceballos D, Villches JJ, Navarro X. Influence of aging on peripheral nerve function and regeneration. J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2000;5(4):191–208 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vaughan DW. Effects of advancing age on peripheral nerve regeneration. J Comp Neurol. 1992;323(2):219–37 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kuhl DE, Koeppe RA, Minoshima S, Synder SE, Ficaro EP, Foster NL, et al. In vivo mapping of cerebral acetylcholine activity in aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology. 1999;52:691–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang Y, Chan GL, Holden JE, Dobko T, Mak E, Schulzer M, et al. Age dependent decline of dopamine D1 receptors in human brain: a PET study. Synapse. 1998;31(1):56–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Van Dyck CH, Malison RT, Seibyl JP, Larnele M, Klumpp H, Zoghbi SS, et al. Age related decline in cerebral serotonin transporting availability with [(1230I] beta-CIT SPECT. Neurobiol Aging. 2000;21(4):497–501 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Spurduso WW. Physical dimensions of aging. Champaigns: Human Kinetics; 1995.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Edwards BA, O’Driscoll DM, Ali A, Jordan AS, Trinder J, Malhotra A, et al. Aging and sleep: physiology and pathophysiology. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;31(5):618–33 (abstract).PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Parkinson’s Disease, Secondary Parkinsonism and Parkinson Plus Syndromes

  1. 21.
    Dickson DW. Parkinson’s disease and parkinsonism: neuropathology. In: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine. Cold Spring Laboratory Press; 2012. doi: 10.1101/cshperspective.a000258. (abstract).
  2. 22.
    Chan DK, Cordato D, Karr M, Ong B, Lei H, Liu J, et al. Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in Sydney. Acta Neurol Scand. 2005;111:7–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 23.
    McCann SJ, Lecouteur DG, Green AC, Bretne C, Johnson AG, Chan D, et al. The epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease in an Australian population. Neuroepidemiology. 1998;17:310–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 24.
    Van Den Eeden SK, Tanner CM, Bernstein AL, Fross RD, Leimpeter A, Bloch DM, et al. Incidence of Parkinson’s disease: variation by age, gender and race/ethnicity. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157(11):1015–22 (abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 25.
    Tanner CM. Occupational and environmental causes of parkinsonism. Occup Med. 1992;7:503–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 26.
    Braak H, Del Tredici K, Ruib U, de Vos RA, Jansen Steur EN, Brack E, et al. Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2003;24:197–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 27.
    Lang AE. The progression of Parkinson disease: a hypothesis. Neurology. 2007;68:948–52 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 28.
    Smith Y, Bevan MD, Shink E, Bolam JP. Microcircuitry of direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia. Neuroscience. 1998;86(2):353–97 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 29.
    Lotharius J, Brundin P. Pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease: dopamine vesicles and a – synuclein. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2002;3:932–42 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 30.
    Dauer W, Przedborski S. Parkinson’s disease. Neuron. 2003;39(6):889–909 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 31.
    Glasson BI, Lee VM-Y. Parkin and molecular pathways of Parkinson’s disease. Neuron. 2001;31(6):885–8 (abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 32.
    Braak H, Braak E, Yilmazer D, Schultz C, De Vos RA, Jansen EN, et al. Nigral and extranigral pathology in Parkinson’s disease. J Neural Transm. 1995;46(Suppl):15–31 (abstract).Google Scholar
  13. 33.
    Stefanis L. α-Synuclein in Parkinson’s disease. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012;2:a009399 (abstract).PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 34.
    Recchia A, Debetto P, Negro A, Guidolin D, Skaper SD, Giusti P. α-Synuclein and Parkinson’s disease. FASEB J. 2004;18:617–26 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 35.
    Goedert M. Filamentous nerve cell inclusions in neurodegenerative diseases: taupathies and alpha-synucleinopathies. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1999;354(1386):1101–18 (abstract).PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 36.
    Chua CE, Tang BL. Alpha-synuclein and Parkinson’s disease: the first road block. J Cell Mol Med. 2006;10(4):837–46 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 37.
    Hindle JV. Ageing neurodegeneration and Parkinson’s disease. Age Ageing. 2010;39(2):156–61 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 38.
    Levy G. The relationship of Parkinson disease with aging. Arch Neurol. 2007;64(9):1242–8 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 39.
    Rivlin-Etzion M, Marmor O, Heimer G, Raz A, Nini A, Bergman H. Basal ganglia oscillations and pathophysiology of movement disorders. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2006;16(6):629–37 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 40.
    Bergman H, Deuschl G. Pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease: from clinical neurology to basic neuroscience and back. Mov Disord. 2002;17 Suppl 3:S28–40 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 41.
    Weinberger M, Hutchison WD, Lozano AM, Hodale M, Dostrovsky JO. Increased gamma oscillatory activity in the subthalmic nucleus during tremor in Parkinson’s disease patients. J Neurophysiol. 2009;101(2):789–802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 42.
    Bergman H, Wichmann T, Karmon R, De Long MR. The primate subthalamic nucleus. II. Neuronal activity in the MPTP model of parkinsonism. J Neurophysiol. 1994;72:507–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 43.
    Deuschi G, Raethjen J, Baron R, Lindemann M, Wilms H, Krack P, et al. The pathophysiology of Parkinsonian tremor: a review. J Neurol. 2000;247 Suppl 5:V33–48 (abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 44.
    Zaidel A, Arkadir D, Israel Z, Bergman H. Akineto-rigid vs tremor syndromes in Parkinsonism. Curr Opin Neurol. 2009;22(4):387–93 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Multisystem Atrophy (MSA)

  1. 45.
    Quinn NP, Marsden CD. The motor disorder of multiple system atrophy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1993;56:1239–42.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 46.
    Jellinger KA. Pathogenesis of multisystem atrophy. Recent Developments. Int J Neurol Neurother 2015;2:1.Google Scholar
  3. 47.
    Quinn NP, Wenning G. Multiple system atrophy. Br J Hosp Med. 1994;51:492–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 48.
    Stefanova N, Biicke P, Duerr S, Wenning GK. Multiple system atrophy: an update. Lancet Neurol. 2009;8(12):1172–8 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 49.
    Bower JH, Maragamore DM, McDonnell SK, Rocca WA. Incidence of progressive supranuclear paralysis and multiple system atrophy in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Neurology. 1997;49:1284–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 50.
    Jamora RD, Gupta A, Tan AK, Tan LC. Clinical characteristics of patients with multiple system atrophy in Singapore. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2005;34(9):553–7 (abstract).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 51.
    Papp MI, Kahn JE, Lantos G. Cytoplasmic inclusions in the central nervous system of patients with multisystem atrophy(striato nigral degeneration; olivo-cerebellar atrophy and Shy-Drager syndrome). J Neurol Sci. 1989;94:79–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 52.
    Wakabayashi K, Takahashi H. Cellular pathology in multiple system atrophy. Neuropathology. 2006;26(4):338–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 53.
    Yoshida M. Multiple system atrophy: alpha-synuclein and neuronal degeneration. Neuropathology. 2007;27(5):484–93 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 54.
    Delacourte A. Multiple System Disease (MSA). 2009. www.alzheimer-europe.org. Accessed 5.6.2012.

Motor Neurone Disease

  1. 55.
    Logroscino G, Tragnor BJ, Hardiman O. Descriptive epidemiology of amyothrophic lateral sclerosis: new evidence and unsolved issues. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79:6–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 56.
    Rocha JA, Reis S, Simeo F, Fonseca J, Mendes Ribeiro J. Diagnostic investigation and multidisciplinary management in motor neurone disease. J Neurol. 2005;252(12):1435–47 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 57.
    Gordon PH. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; pathophysiological, diagnosis and management. CNS Drugs. 2011;4(5):1–15 (abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 58.
    MackenzieI RA, Bigio ZH, Ince PG, Geser F, Neumann M, Cairns NJ, et al. TDP-43 distinguishes sporadic amytrophic lateral sclerosis from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with SODI mutations. Ann Neurol. 2007;61:427–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 59.
    Siddique T, Nijhawan D, Hentati A. Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neural Transm Suppl. 1997;49:219–33 (abstract).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 60.
    Munch C, Ludolph AC. Pharmacological treatment of amyothrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2001;35(suppl):41–50 (abstract).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 61.
    Gurney ME, Cutting FB, Zhai P, Andrus PK, Hall ED. Pathogenic mechanisms in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis due to mutation of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1996;44(1):51–6 (abstract).Google Scholar
  8. 62.
    Gordon PH, Cheng B, Katz IB, Pinto M, Hayys AP, Mitsumoto H, et al. The natural history of primary lateral sclerosis. Neurology. 2006;66(5):647–53 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Peripheral Neuropathy

  1. 63.
    Verghese J, BiariPL GC, Schaumburg HH, Herskovitz S. Peripheral neuropathy in young-old and old-old patients. Muscle Nerve. 2001;24:1476–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 64.
    Shields RW Jr. Peripheral neuropathy. Cleveland clinic. Center for Continuing Education. http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/neurology/per. Accessed on 2 Apr 2014.
  3. 65.
    Agamanolis DP. Peripheral nerve pathology. In: Neuropathology, Chapter 12. http://neuropathologyweb.org/chapter12/chapter12Neuropathy.html. Retrieved on 19 Feb 2015.
  4. 66.
    Poncelet AN. An algorithm for the evaluation of peripheral neuropathy. Am Fam Physician. 1998;57(4):755–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 67.
    Kumar NB. Neurological aspects of cobalamin (B12) deficiency. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014;120:915–26 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 68.
    Wynn M, Wynn A. The danger of B12 deficiency in the elderly. Nutr Health. 1998;12:215–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 69.
    Sewell RA. Excerpt from nutritional neuropathy. http://www.emedicine.com/neuro/byname/nutritional-neuropathy.htm.
  8. 70.
    Chin RL. Neuropathology and the gastrointestinal system. http://www.neuropathy.org/site/DocServer/nutritional. GI-RussellCMD.pdf?docID=1601.
  9. 71.
    Walsh JC, McLeod JG. Alcohol neurophysiological electrophysiological and pathological study. J Neuro Sci. 1970;10:457–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 72.
    Camdessanche JP, Antoine JC, Honnorat J, Vial C, Petiot P, Convers P, et al. Paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathy associated with anti –Hu antibodies. A clinical and electrophysiological study pf 20 patients. Brain. 2002;125(Pt1):166–75 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 73.
    Graus F, Dalmau J. Paraneoplastic neuropathies. Curr Opin Neurol. 2013;26(5):489–95 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 74.
    Lin CS-Y, Krishnan AV, Lee M-J, Zaga MI, You H-L, Yang CC, et al. Nerve function and dysfunction in acute intermittent porphyria. Brain. 2008;131:2510–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 75.
    Bolton CF. Sepsis and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome: neuromuscular syndrome. Crit Care Med. 1996;24:1408–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 76.
    Bolton CF, Gilbert JJ, Hahn AF, Sibbald WJ. Polyneuropathy in critically ill patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1984;47:1223–31.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 77.
    Berger AR, Schaumburg HH, Lowe ES. Human toxic neuropathy due to industrial agents. http://www.neuropathy.org/site/DueServer/Toxin-Induced_Neuropathies.pdf?dociD=1603. Retrieved on 7 Apr 2014.
  16. 78.
    Ludolph AC, Spencer PS. Toxic neuropathies and their treatment. Baillieres Clin Neurol. 1995;4(3):505–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 79.
    Kuwabara S. Guillain-Barre’ syndrome: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management. Drugs. 2004;64(6):597–610 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 80.
    Hughes RA, Comblath DR. Guillain-Barre syndrome. Lancet. 2005;366(9497):1653–66 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 81.
    Vucic S, Kierman MC, Comblath DR. Guillain-Barre syndrome: an update. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16(6):733–41 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 82.
    Newswanger DL, Warren CR. Guillain-Barre syndrome. Am Fam Physician. 2004. http://www.aafp.org/afp/20040515/2405.html.
  21. 83.
    Hahn AF. Guillain-Barre syndrome. Lancet. 1998;352:635–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 84.
    Odaka M, Yuki N, Hiurata K. Anti-GQib IgG antibody syndrome: clinical and immunological range. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;70(1):50–5 (abstract).PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 85.
    Kaplan JE, Schoenberger LB, Hurwitz ES, Katona P. Gullain Barre syndrome in the United States 1978–1981. Neurology. 1983;33:633–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 86.
    Arnason BGW. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathies. In: Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, Lambert EH, Bunce R, editors. Peripheral neuropathy. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1984. p. 2050–99.Google Scholar
  25. 87.
    Winner SJ, Grimley EJ. Age specific incidence of Guillain-Barre’ syndrome in Oxfordshire. Q J Med. 1990;77(3):1297–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 88.
    Aloor M. The epidemiology of Guillain-Barre syndrome. Ann Neurol. 1900;27(supp):57–80.Google Scholar
  27. 89.
    Thomas PK, Ochoa J. Symptomatology and differential diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy. In: Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, editors. Peripheral neuropathy. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1993. p. 749–74.Google Scholar
  28. 90.
    Odaka M, Yuki N. Variants and differential diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome. Expert Rev Neurol. 2002;2(6):877–89 (abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 91.
    Hughes RA, Hadden RD, Gregson NA, Smith KJ. Pathogenesis of Guillain-Barre syndrome. J Neuroimunol. 1999;100(1–2):74–97 (abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 92.
    Ho TW, Mishu B, Li CY, Cornblath DR, Griffin JW, Asbury AK, et al. Guillain Barre Syndrome in norther China, relationship to Campylobacter jejuni infection and anti-glycolipid antibodies. Brain. 1988;118:597–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 93.
    Rees JH, Sondain SE, Gregson N, Hughes RA. Campylobacter jejuni infection in Guillain-Barre syndrome. NEJM. 1995;333:1374–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 94.
    Igawara K, Kuwabara S, Mori M, Hattori T, Koga M, Yuki N. Axonal Guillain-Barre syndrome: relation to antiganglioside antibodies and Campylobacter infection in Japan. Ann Neurol. 2000;48:62–3.Google Scholar
  33. 95.
    Azulay JP, Verschueren A, Attarian S, Pouget J. Guillain-Barre syndrome and its frontiers. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2002;158(12Pt2):S21–6 (abstract).Google Scholar
  34. 96.
    Kimoto K, Koga M, Odaku M, Hirata K, Takahashi M, Li J, et al. Relationship of bacterial strains to clinical syndromes of Camphylobacter associated neuropathies. Neurology. 2006;67(10):637–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 97.
    Winer JB. An update in Guillain-Barre syndrome. Autoimmune Dis. 2014;2014:793024. doi: 10.1155/2014/793024. Epub. 2014 Jan 6 (abstract).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 98.
    Uncini A, Kuwabara S. Electrodiagnostic criteria for Guillain-Barre syndrome: a critical revision and the need for an update. Clin Neurophysiol. 2012;123(8):1487–95 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Disorders of Neuromuscular Transmission

  1. 99.
    Gomez AM, Van Ben Broeck J, Vrolix K, Janssen JP, Lemmens MA, Van Der Esch E, et al. Antibody effector mechanisms in myasthenia gravis-pathogenesis at the neuromuscular junction. Autoimmunity. 2010;43(5–6):353–70 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 100.
    Robertson NP, Denns J, Compston DA. Myasthenia gravis: a population based epidemiological study in Cambridgeshire, England. J Neurol Nurosurg Psychiatry. 1998;65:492–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 101.
    Slesak G, Mclins A, Gerneth T, Sommer N, Weissert R, Dichans J. Late onset myasthenia gravis: almost one third of all cases present in the elderly population: follow-up of 113 patients diagnosed after age of 60. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1998;841:777–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 102.
    Trouth JA, Dabi A, Solieman N, Kurukumbi M, Kalyanam J. Myasthenia gravis: a review. Autoimmune Dis. 2012;2012:874680. doi: 10.1155/2012/874680. Epub 2012 Oct 31. (abstract).Google Scholar
  5. 103.
    Phillips LH, Torner JC. Epidemiologic evidence for a changing natural history of myasthenia gravis. Neurology. 1996;47(5):1233–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 104.
    Thanvi BR, Lo TC. Update on myasthenia. Postgrad Med J. 2004;80:690–700.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 105.
    Vincent A, Clover L, Buckley C, Evans JG, Rothwell PM. Evidence of underdiagnosis of myasthenia gravis in older people. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74(8):1105–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 106.
    Aarli JA. Myasthenia gravis in the elderly: is it different. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2008;1132:238–43 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 107.
    Aragones JM, Bolibar I, Bonfill X, Bufill E, Mummany A, Alonsof F. Myasthenia gravis: a higher than expected incidence in the elderly. Neurology. 2003;60(6):1024–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 108.
    Montero-Odasso M. Dysphonia as first symptom of late onset myasthenia gravis. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21:C4–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 109.
    Aarli JA. Late-onset myasthenia gravis: changing scene. Arch Neurol. 1999;56:25–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 110.
    Simpson JF, Westerberg MR, Magee KR. Myasthenis gravis: an analysis of 295 cases. Acta Neurol Scand. 1996;42 Suppl 23:1–27.Google Scholar
  13. 111.
    Shah AK. Excerpt from myasthenis gravis. eMedicine –myasthenia gravis. http://www.emediine.com/neuro/byname/myasthenia-gravis.htm.
  14. 112.
    Koneczay I, Cossins J, Vincent A. The role of muscle specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) and mystery of MuSK myasthenia gravis. J Anatomy. 2014;224:21–35.Google Scholar
  15. 113.
    Berman SH, Sanders DB. Assessment of neyromuscular tansmissions. In: eMedicine. Neurology. Lorenzo N, editor. 2007.Google Scholar
  16. 114.
    Zhang B, Luo S, Wong O, Suzuki T, Xiong W, Mei L. LRP4 serves as a coreceptor of agrin. Neuron. 2008;60:285–97.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 115.
    De Chiara TM, Bowen DC, Valenzuela DM, Simmons MV, Poneymiron WT, Thomas S, et al. The receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK is required for neuromuscular junction formation in vivo. Cell. 1996;85:501–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 116.
    Kim N, Stiegler AL, Cameron TO, Hallock PT, Gomez AM, Huang JH, et al. LRP4 is a receptor to agrin and forms a complex with MuSK. Cell. 2008;135:334–42.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 117.
    Mantegazza R, Bonanno S, Camera G, Antozzi A. Current and emerging therapies for the treatment of myasthenia gravis. Neuropsychiatr Dis treat. 2011;7:151–60.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 118.
    Reddel SW. Treatment of myasthenis gravis. Aust Pres. 2007;30(6):160.Google Scholar
  21. 119.
    Lennon VA. Experimental auto-immune myasthenia gravis induced by immunization with solubilized acetyl choline. Hum Pathol. 1978;9(5):541–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 120.
    Vincent A, McConville J, Farrugia ME, Newsom-Davis J. Seronegative myasthenia gravis. Semin Neurol. 2004;24:125–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 121.
    Suzuki S, Utsugisawa K, Nagane Y, Satoh T, Kuwana S, Suzuki N, et al. Clinical and immunological differences between early and late-onset myasthenia gravis in Japan. J Neuroimmunol. 2011;230(1–2):148–52 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 122.
    Hoch W, McConvilk JH, Holms S, Newsom-Davis J, Melms A, Vincent A. Autoantibodies to the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK in patients with myasthenis gravis without acetylcholine receptor antibodies. Nat Med. 2001;7:365–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 123.
    Skeie GO, Aarli JA, Gilhus NE. Titin and ryanodine receptor antibodies in myasthenia gravis. Acta Neurol Scand. 2006;183(Suppl):19–23 (abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 124.
    Romi F. Thymoma in myasthenia gravis: from diagnosis to treatment. Autoimmue Dis. 2011;2011:474512. doi: 10.4061/2011/474512. Epub 2011 Aug 10 (abstract).Google Scholar
  27. 125.
    Higuchi O, Hamuro J, Motomura M, Yamanashi Y. Autoantibodies to low sensitivity lipoprotein receptor related protein 4 in myasthenia gravis. Ann Neurol. 2011;69:418–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 126.
    Cossins J, Bohya K, Zoltowska K, Koneczny I, Maxwell S, Jacobson L, et al. The search for new antigenic targets in myasthenia gravis. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2012;1275:123–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 127.
    Drachman DB. Myasthenia gravis. N Engl J Med. 1994;330(25):1797–810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 128.
    Chaudhuri A. Myasthenic crises. QJM. 2014;102(2):97–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 129.
    Wikipedia. Myasthenia gravis. http://en.wilkipedia.org/wiki/Myasthenia_gravis#Pathophysiology. Retrieved 7 Apr 2014.
  32. 130.
    Gunji K, Skolnick C, Bednarczuk T, Benes S, Ackrell BA, Cochran B, et al. Eye muscle antibodies in patients with ocular myasthenia gravis: possible mechanism for eye muscle inflammation in acetylcholine receptor antibody-negative patients. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1998;87(3):276–81 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 131.
    Wang W, Hen YP, Wei DN. The clinical characteristics of early-onset versus late-onset types of myasthenia gravis. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 2011;50(6):496–8 (abstract).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 132.
    Writz PN, Nijnuis MG, Sotodeh M, Willems LN, Brahim JJ, Putter H, et al. The epidemiology of myasthenia gravis. Lambert-Eaton myasthenia gravis and their associated tumours in the northern part of the province of South Holland. J Neurol. 2003;250(6):698–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 133.
    Gilhus NE. Lambert-Eaton myasthenia gravis: pathophysiology diagnosis and therapy. Autoimmune Dis. 2011;2011:973808. doi: 10.4061/2011/973808.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 134.
    Mahadeva B, Phillips LH, Juel VC. Autoimmune disorders of the neuromuscular transmission. Semin Neurol. 2008;28(2):212–27 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 135.
    Eymard B. Autoimmune myasthenia and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. Pathophysiologic concepts. Ann Med Interne (Paris). 1989;140(6):462–6 (abstract).Google Scholar
  38. 136.
    Lisy L. Immunopathogenesis of myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton syndrome. Bratisl Lek Listy. 1997;98(4):217–20 (abstract).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 137.
    Lang B, Vincent A. Autoantibodies to ion channels at the neuromuscular junction. Autoimmun Rev. 2003;2(2):94 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 138.
    Lin RC, Scheller RH. Mechanism in synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Ann Rev Cell Div Biol. 2000;16:19–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Stroke

  1. 139.
    Bramford J, Sandercock P, Dennis M, Warlow C, Jones L, McPherson K, et al. A prospective study of acute cerebrovascular disease in the community, the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project 1981-86-1: methodology, demography and incidence increase of first ever stroke. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1988;51:1373–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 140.
    Brown RD, Whisnsant JP, Sicks D, O’Fallow WM, Wickers DO. Stroke incidence, prevalence and survival: recent trends in Rochester Minnesota through 1989. Stroke. 1996;27:373–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 141.
    Di Carlo A, Launer LJ, Breteler MMB, Fratiglioni L, Lobo A, Marinez-Lage J, et al. Frequency of stroke in Europe: a collaborative study of population based cohorts. ILSA working Group and the Neurological Diseases in the Elderly Research Group: Italian Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Neurology. 2000;54(11 (Suppl 5)):S34–7.Google Scholar
  4. 142.
    Boyle Jr EM, Lille ST, Allaire E, Clowess AW, Verrier ED. Endothelial cell injury in cardiovascularsurgery: atherosclerosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 1997;63(3):885–94 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 143.
    Reiner Z, Tedeschi-Reiner E. New information on pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Lijec Vjesn. 2001;123(1–2):26–31 (abstract).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 144.
    Davies MJ. Arterial Thrombosis and Acute Coronary Syndromes. In Acute Coronary Syndrome. J Amer Coll Cardiol, 1999.Google Scholar
  7. 145.
    Lammie GA. Pathology of small vessel stroke. Br Med Bull. 2000;56(2):206–306.Google Scholar
  8. 146.
    Fisher CM. Pathological observation in hypetension and cerebralhaemorrhage. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1971;30:536–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 147.
    Brott T, Broderick J, Kothari R, Barsam W, Tomsick T, Sauerbeck L, et al. Early haemorrhagic growth in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage. Stroke. 1997;28:1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 148.
    Qureshi AI, Tuhrim S, Broderick JB, Batjer HH, Hondo H, Hanley DF, et al. Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(19):1450–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 149.
    Chakravathy A, Shivane A. Pathology of intracerebral haemorrhage. ACNR. 2008;8:20–1.Google Scholar
  12. 150.
    Butcher KS, Baird T, MacGregor I, Desmod P, Tress B, Davis S. Perihaematomal oedema in primary cerebral haemorrhage is plasma derived. Stroke. 2004;35:1879–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 151.
    Smith EE, Greenberg SM. Clinical diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy: validation of the Boston Criteria. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2003;5:260–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Insomnia and Related Sleep Disorders in the Elderly

  1. 152.
    Groulx B. Management of sleep disorders in the elderly. Ther Update. 1999;7(4):3–8.Google Scholar
  2. 153.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. In: Text revision. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, Inc; 2000.Google Scholar
  3. 154.
    Avidan AY. Insomnia in the geriatric patient. Clin Cornerstone. 2003;5(3):51–60 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 155.
    Ancoli-Israel S. Insomnia in the elderly: a review for the primary care practitioner. Sleep. 2000;23 Suppl 1:S23–30 (abstract).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 156.
    Bain KT. Management of chronic insomnia in elderly persons. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2006;4(2):168–92 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 157.
    McCall WV. Sleep in the elderly: burden diagnosis and treatment. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;6(1):9–20.Google Scholar
  7. 158.
    Mazza M, Della Marca G, De Risio S, Mennuni GF, Mazza S. Sleep disorders in the elderly. Clin Ther. 2004;155(9):391–4 (abstract).Google Scholar
  8. 159.
    Bombois S, Derambure P, Pasquier F, Monaca C. Sleep disorders in aging and dementia. J Nutr Health Aging. 2010;14(3):212–7 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 160.
    Jensen E, Dehlin O, Hagberg B, Samuelson G, Svensson T. Insomnia in an 80-year old population: relationship to medical, psychological and social factors. J Sleep Res. 1998;7:83–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 161.
    Maggi S, Langlois JA, Minicuci N, Grigoletto F, Pavan M, Foley DJ, et al. Sleep complaints in a community-dwelling older persons, prevalence, associated factors and reported causes. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998;46:161–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 162.
    Karacan I, Thornby JI, Anch M. Prevalence of sleep disturbance in a primarily urban Florida county. Soc Sci Med. 1976;27:239–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 163.
    Quera-Salva MA, Borderies P, Moreau J, Cugy D. The efficacy of zolpidem during and after shift from BZD hypnotics in elderly chronic insomniac patients. Sleep Res. 1991;20A:370.Google Scholar
  13. 164.
    Miles LE, Dement WC. Sleep and aging. Sleep. 1980;3:119–220.Google Scholar
  14. 165.
    Iber C, Ancoli-Israel S, Chesson A, Quan SF. AASM manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events. Westchester Ill: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2007.Google Scholar
  15. 166.
    Carskdon MA, Dement WC. Normal human sleep. An overview. In: Kryger MH, Roth TT, Dement WC, editors. Principles and practice of sleep medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2005. p. 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 167.
    Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, editors. Principles and practice of sleep medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2005.Google Scholar
  17. 168.
    Stevens MS. Normal sleep, sleep physiology and sleep deprivation. http://emedicine.mediscape.com/article/1188226-overview. Updated 5 Dec 2011. Accessed 27 Mar 2013.
  18. 169.
    Townsend-Roccichelli J, Sanford JT, Vandewaa E. Managing sleep disorders in the elderly. Nurse Prac Am J Primary Health Care. 2010;35(5):30–7.Google Scholar
  19. 170.
    Waterhouse J, Fukuda Y, Morita T. Daily rhythms of the sleep-wake cycle. J Physiol Anthropol. 2012;31:5. doi: 10.1186/1880-6805-31-5 (abstract).PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 171.
    Beullens J. Sleep disorders in elderly, the sleep apnea syndrome in particular: are they cause of insomnia? A review of literature. Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr. 1999;30(6):256–63 (abstract).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 172.
    Prinz PN, Vitiello MV, Raskind MA, Thorphy MJ. Geriatric: sleep disorders and aging. New Eng J Med. 1990;323:320–6.Google Scholar
  22. 173.
    Culebras A. 1994. El sucho au la vegezau La medicine.Google Scholar
  23. 174.
    Derment W, Richardson G, Prinz P, Carskadon M, Kripke D, Czeisler C, et al. The changes of sleep and wakefulness with age. New York: In CE Finch and EL Schneidei eds. The Biology of Aging van Nostrand Reinhold; 1985. p. 692–717.Google Scholar
  24. 175.
    Ancoli-Israel S. Epidemiology of sleep disorders. Clin Geriatr Med. 1989;5:347–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 176.
    Lewis SA. Sleep patterns during afternoon naps in the young and elderly. Br J Psychiatry. 1969;115:107–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 177.
    Carskadon MA, van den Hoed J, Dement WC. Sleep and daytime sleepiness in the elderly. J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1980;13:135–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 178.
    Martin J, Shochat T, Ancoli-Israel S. Assessment and treatment of sleep disturbances in older adults. Clin Psychol Rev. 2000;20:783–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 179.
    Prinz PN, Vitielo MV, Smallwood RG, Schoene RB, Halter JB. Plasma norepinephrine in normal young and aged men relationship with sleep. J Gerontol. 1984;39:561–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 180.
    Matheson JK. Sleep disorders in the elderly. Med Health/Rhode Island. 2008;91(5):144–6.Google Scholar
  30. 181.
    Allen RP, Picchietti D, Hening WA, Trenkwalder C, Waters AS, Montplaisi J, et al. Restless leg syndrome: diagnostic criteria, special considerations, and epidemiology workshop at the National Institutes of Health. Sleep Med. 2003;4(2):101–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 182.
    Cox Health. Restless leg syndrome and periodic leg movements disease. http://www.coxhealth.com. Accessed 6 Feb 2014.
  32. 183.
    Hornyak M, Feige B, Riemann D, Voderholzer U. Periodic leg movements in sleep and periodic limb movement disorder: prevalence, clinical significance and treatment. Sleep Med Rev. 2006;10(3):169–77 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 184.
    Uddin UBMS, Jarmi T. REM sleep behaviour disorder. eMedicine Neurology. 2007. website: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1188651-overview.
  34. 185.
    International classification of sleep disorders, revised diagnostic and coding manual. Rochester. Minn: Am Sleep Dis Assoc. 1997;177–80.Google Scholar
  35. 186.
    Tachibana N. REM sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol. 2007;254:8–14 (abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 187.
    Carskdon MA, Rechtschaffen A. Monitoring and staging human sleep. In: Kryger MH, Roth TT, Dement WC, editors. Principles and practice of sleep medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2005. p. 1359–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 188.
    Rye DB, Dihenia B, Weissman JD, Epstein C, Bliwise DL. Presentation of narcolepsy after 40. Neurology. 1998;50:459–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 189.
    Attaruian H. Narcolepsy in the older adult. In: Goswami M, Pando-Perumal SR, Thorpy NJ, editors. Narcolepsy: a clinical guide. New York: Humana Press; 2009. p. 69–76.Google Scholar

Headaches

  1. 190.
    Waters WE. The pontypridd headache survey. Headache. 1974;14:81–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 191.
    Cook NR, Evans DA, Funkenstein HH, Scherr PA, Ostfeld AM, Taylor JO, et al. Correlates of headache in a population-based cohort of the elderly. Arch Neurol. 1989;46(12):1338–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 192.
    Solomon GD, Kunkel RS, Frame J. Demographics of headaches in elderly patients. Headache. 1990;30:273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 193.
    Hale WE, Perkins LL, May FE, Marks RG, Stewart RB, et al. Symptom prevalence in the elderly: an evaluation of age, sex, disease and medication. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1986;3495:333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 194.
    Biondi DM, Saper JR. Geriatric headache: how to make the diagnosis and manage pain. Geriatrics. 2000;55(12):40, 43–5.48–50 (abstract).Google Scholar
  6. 195.
    Reinisch VM, Schankin CJ, Felbinger J, Sostak P, Straube A. Headache in the elderly. Schmerz. 2008;22 Suppl 1:22–30 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 196.
    Prencipe AM, Casini AR, Ferretti C, Santini M, Pezzella F, Scaldaferri N, et al. Prevalence of headache in an elderly population: attack frequency, disability and use of medication. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;70:377–81.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 197.
    Tanganetti P. Secondary headaches in the elderly. Neuro Sci. 2010;31(Suppl 1):S73–6. doi: 10.1007/s10072-010-02776 (abstract).
  9. 198.
    Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society Classification. Classification and diagnostic criteria for headache disorders, cranial neuralgias, facial pain. Cephalalgia. 1988;8 Suppl 7:1.Google Scholar
  10. 199.
    Lipton RB, Bigal ME, Steiner TJ, Siberstein SD, Olesen J. Classification of primary headaches. Neurology. 2004;63(3):427–35 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 200.
    Gobel H, Heinze A. Headache and facial pain in the elderly. Schmerz. 2007;21(6):561–9 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 201.
    Silberstein SD, Lipton RB. Chronic daily headaches including transformed migraine, chronic tension headache and medications overuse. In: Silberstein SD, Lipton RB, Dalessio DJ, editors. Wolff’s Headache and other head pain. New York: Oxford University Press; 2001. p. 247–82.Google Scholar
  13. 202.
    Hershey LA, Bednarczyk EM. Treatment of headache in the elderly. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2013;15(1):56–62 (abstract).PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 203.
    Silberstein SD. Chronic daily headaches. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2005;105(4 Suppl):23S–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 204.
    Goadsby PJ, Boes C. New daily persistent headaches. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002;72:ii6–9. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.72suppl_21.6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 205.
    Lipton RB, Pfeffer D, Newman LC, Solomon S. Headaches in the elderly. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1993;8:87–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 206.
    Selby GW, Lance JW. Observations on 500 cases of migraine and allied vascular headache. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1960;23:23–32.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 207.
    Wilkinson M. Clinical features of migraine. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW, Klawans HL, et al., editors. Headache. New York: Elsevier; 1986. p. 117–83.Google Scholar
  19. 208.
    Manusov EG. Late-life accompaniments: a case presentation and literature review. J Fam Pract. 1987;24(6):591–4 (abstract).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 209.
    Edmeads J. Headaches in older people. Postgrad Med. 1997;101(5):91–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 210.
    Hanky GJ. Stroke. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston; 2002.Google Scholar
  22. 211.
    Raskin NH. The hypnic headache syndrome. Headache. 1988;28(8):534–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 212.
    Evers S, Goadsby PJ. Hypnic headache. Pract Neurol. 2005;8:144–9 (abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 213.
    Newman LC, Lipton RB, Solomon S. The hypnic headache syndrome: a benign headache disorder of the elderly. Neurology. 1990;190(12):1904–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 214.
    Obermann M, Holle D. Hypnic headache. Expect Rev Neurother. 2010;10(4):1391–7 (abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 215.
    Evans RW. Diagnostic testing for the evaluation of headaches. Neurol Clin. 1996;14(1):1–26 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 216.
    Greig NH, Ries LG, Yancik R, Rapoport SI. Increasing incidence of primary malignant tumours in the elderly. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1990;82:1621–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 217.
    Crawford J, Cohen HJ. Relationship of cancer and aging. Clin Geriatr Med. 1987;3:419–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 218.
    Legler JM, Reis LA, Smith MA, Warren JL, Heinman EF, Kaplan RS, et al. Cancer surveillance series (corrected) brain and other central nervous system cancers. Recent trends in incidence and mortality. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91:1382–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 219.
    Nayak L, Iwamoto FM. Primary brain tumours in the elderly. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2010;10(4):252–8 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 220.
    Cancer Control. Brain tumours in the older person. Medscape. 2000;7(6). http://www.Medscape.com/viewarticle./409013_9. Accessed 17 Nov 2013.
  32. 221.
    Purdy RA, Kirby S. Headaches and brain tumours. Neurol Clin. 2004;22(1):39–53 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 222.
    Edmeads J, et al. Headaches in cerebrovascular disease. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW, Klawans HL, editors. Hand-book of clinical neurology: headache. 7th ed. New York: Elsevier; 1986. p. 273–90.Google Scholar
  34. 223.
    Forsyth PA, Posner JB. Headaches in patients with brain tumours: a study of 111 patients. Neurology. 1993;43(9):1678–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 224.
    Alexander M, Wagner EH, Buchner DM, Cain KC, Lason EB. Do surgical brainlesions present as isolated dementia? A population based study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1995;43:138–43 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 225.
    Tagle P, Mery F, Torreilbe G, Del Villar S, Carmona H, Campos M, et al. Chronic haematoma: a disease of the elderly. Rev Med Clin. 2003;131(2):177–82.Google Scholar
  37. 226.
    Asghar M, Adhiyaman V, Greenway MW, Bhowmich BK, Bates A. Chronic subdural haematoma in the elderly –a North Wales experience. J R Soc Med. 2002;95(6):290–2 (abstract).PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 227.
    Jones S, Kafetz K. A prospective study of chronic subdural haematoma in elderly patients. Age Aging. 1999;28(6):519–21 (abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 228.
    Adhiyaman V, Asghar M, Ganeshram RN, Bhowmicl BK. Chronic subdural haematoma in the elderly. Postgrad Med J. 2002;78(916):71–5 (abstract).PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 229.
    Domingo P, Pomar V, de Benito N, Coll P. The spectrum of acute bacterial meningitis in elderly patients. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:108. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-108.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 230.
    Gorse GJ, Thrupp LP, Nadelman KL, Wyle FA, Hawkins G, Cesario TC, et al. Bacterial meningitis in the elderly. Arch Intern Med. 1984;144:1603–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 231.
    Wenger JD, Hightower AW, Facklam RR, Gaventa S, Brome CV. Bacterial meningitis 1986: report of multistate surveillance study. J Infect Dis. 1990;162:1316–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 232.
    Laguna-Del-Estal P, Garcia Madero R, Gil-Navarro M, Garcia-Zubiri C, Agud Fernandez AM. Acute bacterial meningitis in older people. Rev Clin Esp. 2010;210(2):57–64 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 233.
    Hussein AS, Shafran SD. Acute bacterial meningitis in adults: a 12 year review. Medicine (Baltimore). 2000;79(6):360–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 234.
    Wersfelt M, van de Beek D, Soanjaard L, Reitsma JB, Gans J. Community acquired bacterial meningitis in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54(10):1500–7 (abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Memory and Memory Loss

  1. 235.
    Erickson KR. Amnestic disorders. Pathophysiology and patterns of memory dysfunction. West J Med. 1990;152(2):159–66.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 236.
    Atkinson RC, Shiffrin RM. The control process of short term memory. Institute of Mathematical Studies in the Social Services. Stanford California: Stanford University; 1971.Google Scholar
  3. 237.
    McLeod S. Short term memory. Retrieved form: http://www.simplypsychology.org/short-term-memory-html.
  4. 238.
    Baddeley A. Working memory. Science. 1992;255(5044):556–9. abstract.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 239.
    Anderson JR. Language memory and thought. Mahwah NJ: Erlbaum; 1976.Google Scholar
  6. 240.
    Kandal ER. The biology of memory: a forty year perspective. J Neurosci. 2009;29(41):12748–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 241.
    Poldrack RA, Gabrieli JD. Functional anatomy of long-term memory. J Clin Neurophysiol. 1997;14(4):294–310 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 242.
    Squire LR, Zola SM. Episodic memory, semantic memory and amnesia. Hippocampus. 1998;8(30):205–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 243.
    Squire LR. Declarative and non-declarative memory: multiple brain systems supporting learning and memories. J Cogn Neurosci. 1992;4:232–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 244.
    Baddeley AD. The psychology of memory. In: Baddeley AD, Kopelman MD, Wilson BA, editors. The essential handbook of memory disorders for clinicians. Chichester: John Wiley &Sons Ltd; 2004.Google Scholar
  11. 245.
    Budson AE. Understanding memory dysfunction. Neurologist. 2009;15(2):71–9 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 246.
    Schacter DL, Tulvig E. What are the memory systems of 1994? In: Sachacter DL, Tulvig E, editors. Memory systems 1994 (pp. 1–38). Cambridge: MIT Press; 1957. p. 7–38.Google Scholar
  13. 247.
    Milner B. Amnesia following operation on temporal lobes. In: Whitty CWM, Zangwill OL, editors. Amnesia. London: Butterworth; 1966.Google Scholar
  14. 248.
    Shallice T, Warrington EK as quoted by Baddeley AD.Google Scholar
  15. 249.
    Small SA. Age-related memory decline. Current concepts and future directions. JAMA Neurol. 2001;58(3):360–4.Google Scholar
  16. 250.
    Mesulam MM, Mufson BJ, Levey AI, Wainer BH. Cholinergic innervation of cortex by basal forebrain: cytochemistry and cotical connections of the septal area diagonal band nuclei, nucleus basalis (substantia innonunta), and hypothalamus in rhesus monkey. J Comp Neurol. 1983;214:170–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 251.
    Zola-Morgan S, Squire LR. Neuroanatomy of memory. Ann Rev Neurosci. 1993;16:547–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 252.
    Hanniuen T, Korristo K, Reinikainen KJ, Helkali E-C, Soininen H, Mykkanen L, et al. Prevalence of ageing associated cognitive decline in an elderly population. Age Aging. 1996;25:201–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 253.
    Fisk JE, Warr PB. Associative learning and short term forgetting as a function of age perceptual speed and central executive functioning. J Gerontol Psychol Sci. 1998;54B:P112–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 254.
    Luo L, Craik FIM. Aging and memory: a cognitive approach. La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie. 2008;53(6):346.Google Scholar
  21. 255.
    Schugens MM, Daum I, Spindler BN. Differential effects of aging on explicit and implicit memory. Aging Neuropsychol Cogn. 1997;4:33–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 256.
    Huktsch DF, Dixon RA. Learning and memory in ageing. In: Birren JE, Schaie KW, editors. Handbook of the psychology of aging. New York: Academic; 1990. p. 258–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 257.
    Victor M, Adamds RD, Collins GH. The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Philadelphia: FA Davis; 1971.Google Scholar
  24. 258.
    Kopelman MD. Amnesia: organic and psychogenic. Br J Psychiatr. 1987;150:428–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 259.
    Blackman L. Memory functioning in dementia. Amsterdam: North Holland; 1992.Google Scholar
  26. 260.
    Libon KJ, Bogdanoff B, Cloud BS, Skalina S, Giovannetti T, Gitlin HL, et al. Declarative and procedural learning, qualitative measures of the hippocampus and subcortical white matter alterations in Alzheimer’s disease and ischaemic vascular dementia. J Clin Exp Neuropsychiatry. 1998;20(1):30–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 261.
    Tulvig E. Memory functioning in dementia. Amsterdam: North Holland; 1992.Google Scholar
  28. 262.
    Deweer R, Ergis AM, Fosati P, Pillon B, Bller F, Agid Y, et al. Explicit memory procedural learning and lexical priming in Alzheimer’s disease. Cortex. 1994;30:113–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 263.
    Ikeda M, Tanabe H, Kazui H, Komoni K, Nishimura A. Procedural memory in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease. Ann Psychiatry. 1995;5:23–9.Google Scholar
  30. 264.
    Eslinger PJ, Damasio AR. Preserved motor learning in Alzheimer’s disease: implications for anatomy and behaviour. J Neurosci. 1986;6(10):3006–9 (abstract).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 265.
    Smith I, Hillmar A. Management of alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. Adv Psychiatr Treat. 1999;5:271–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 266.
    Kopelman MD, Thomson AD, Guerrini I, Marshall J. The Korsakoff syndrome: clinical aspects. Psychol Treat Alcohol Alcoholism. 2009;44(2):148–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 267.
    Fama R, Pfefferbaum A, Sullivan SP. Visuoperceptual learning in alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006;30:680–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 268.
    Clarke S, Assal G, Bogousslavsky J, Regli F, Townsen DW, Leenders KL, et al. Pure amnesia after unilateral left polar thalamic infarct topographic and sequential neuropsycholoical and metabolic (PET) correlations. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1994;57:27–34 (abstract).PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 269.
    Nagaratnam N, Ghougassian D, Mudridge V. Syndrome of downward gaze paralysis amnesia and hypersomnolence. Postgrad Med J. 1989;65:840–2.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 270.
    Tatemichi TK, Desmond DW, Mayeux R. Dementia after stroke: baseline, frequency, risks and clinical features in a hospitalized cohort. Neurology. 1992;42:1185–93 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 271.
    Tatemichi TK, Desmond DW, Prohovnik I, Cross DT, Gropen TI, Mohr JP. Confusion and memory loss from capsular genu infartction: a thalamocortical disconnection syndrome? Neurology. 1992;42:1966–79 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 272.
    Tsuboi Y, Kojima S, Mori M, Nakai R, Fujita K. Prolonged antegrade amnesia due to anterior thalamic infarct, and SPECT findings. No To Shinkei. 1997;49(1):77 (abstract).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 273.
    Bolla-Wilson K, Bleecher MI. Memory complaints: dementia or depression? Gerontologist. 1986;26:142.Google Scholar
  40. 274.
    Larrabee GJ, Levin HS. Verbal, visual and remote memory performance on a normal elderly sample. Presented at the 12th Annual Meeting of the International Neuropsychological Society. Houston; 1984.Google Scholar
  41. 275.
    Karnath B. Subdural haematoma. Presentation and management of older adults. Geriatrics. 2004;58:18–23.Google Scholar
  42. 276.
    Chen JCT, Levy ML. Causes epidemiology and risk factors of chronic subdural haematoma. Neurosurg Clin North Am. 2000;11(3):399–406.Google Scholar
  43. 277.
    Kritchevsky M, Zouzounis J, Squire LR. Transient global amnesia and functional retrograde amnesia: contrasting examples of episodic memory loss. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1997;352(1362):1747–54 (abstract).PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 278.
    McKay GC, Kopelman MD. Psychogenic Amnesia: when memory complaints are medically unexplained. Adv Psychiatr Treat. 2009;15:152–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 279.
    Markowitsch HJ. Psychogenic amnesia. Neuroimage. 2003;20 Suppl 1:S132–8 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 280.
    Brandt J, Van Gorp WG. Functional (“psychogenic”) amnesia. Semin Neurol. 2006;26(3):331–40 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 281.
    Stone J, Carson A, Sharpe M. Functional symptoms in neurology assessment. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:13–21.Google Scholar
  48. 282.
    World Health Organisation.The ICD-10 classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Clinical Descriptions & Diagnostic Guidelines,WHO.1992.Google Scholar

Chronic Pain

  1. 283.
    Chronic pain network. The pathophysiology of pain. http://www.chronicpainnetwork.com/pathophysiologypain.aspx?text=1. Accessed on 16 Nov 2008.
  2. 284.
    Wall RT. Pharmacological treatment of pain in the elderly. Management of chronic pain in the elderly. Aust J Hosp Pharm. 1998;28:361–7.Google Scholar
  3. 285.
    Crook J, Rideout E, Brown G. The prevalence of pain complaints in a general population. Pain. 1984;18:299–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 286.
    Cavalieri TA. Managing pain in geriatric patients. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2007;107 Suppl 4:ES10–6.Google Scholar
  5. 287.
    Ferrell BA, Ferrell BR, Osterwell D. Pain in the nursing home. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1990;38:409–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 288.
    Kaye AD, Baluch A, Scott JT. Pain management in the elderly population: a review. Ochsner J. 2010;10(3):179–87.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 289.
    Segatore M. Understanding central post-stroke pain. J Neurosci Nurs. 1996;28(1):28–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 290.
    Andersen G, Vestergaard K, Ingeman-Neilsen M, Jensen TS. Incidence of central post stroke pain. Pain. 1995;61:187–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 291.
    Lynch D. Geriatric pain. In: Raj PP, editor. Practical management of pain. 3rd ed. St Louis: Mosby; 2000. p. 270–1.Google Scholar
  10. 292.
    EDU.org. Pathophysiology of pain. https://www.painduorg/tools/pathpyhsiology_pain_asp. Accessed 6 Mar 2015.
  11. 293.
    Patel NB. Chap. 3. Physiology of pain. In: Kopf A, Patel NB, editors. Guide to pain management in low –resources settings. Seattle: IASP; 2010. p. 13–7.Google Scholar
  12. 294.
    Macres M, Richeimer SH, Duran PJ. Understanding neuropathic pain. http://www.helpforpain.com/articles/understand-neuropathic-pain/understanding.htm. Accessed 18 Feb 2015.
  13. 295.
    Nogradi A, Vrbova G. Anatomy and physiology of the spinal cord. Madame Curie Bioscience Database (internet). http://www.ncbi.nim.gov/books/NSK5229/. Retrieved 18 Feb 2015.
  14. 296.
    Dafny N. Anatomy of the spinal cord. Neuroscience. Chap. 3 Section 2. http://www.neuroscience.uth.tms.edu/s2/chapter03.html. Accessed 18 Feb 2015.
  15. 297.
    Thamburaj AV. Physiology & management of pain. Global Spine Network. http://www.globalsoinal.net.physiology_of_pain.html. Accessed on 16 Nov 2008.
  16. 298.
    Fields HL, Heinricher MM. Anatomy and physiology of nociceptive modulatory system. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1985;308:361–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 299.
    Basbaum AI, Fields HL. Endogenous pain control mechanisms: review and hypothesis. Ann Neurol. 1978;4(5):451–62 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 300.
    AGS Panel on Persistent Pain in Older Persons. The management of persistent pain in older persons. J Am Geiatr Soc. 2002;50:5205–24.Google Scholar
  19. 301.
    Helme RD, Katz B. Management of chronic pain. Med J Aust. 1993;158:478–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 302.
    Dejerine J, Rossy G. Le syndrome douloureux thalamique. Rev Neurol (Paris). 1906;14:521–32.Google Scholar
  21. 303.
    Nasreddine ZS, Saver JL. Pain after thalamic stroke: right diencephalic predominance and clinical features in 1980 patients. Neurology. 1997;48:1196–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Gait Disorders

  1. 304.
    Bloem BR, Gussekloo J, Lagaay AM, van Beek W, Wintzen AR, Rs RA, et al. Investigation of gait in elderly subjects over 88 years of age. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1992;5:78–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 305.
    Dawson D, Hendershot G, Fulton J. Aging in the eighties: functional limitations of individuals age 65 and over. National Center for Health Statistics Advance Data.Google Scholar
  3. 306.
    Leon J, Lair T. Functional status of the noninstitutionalised elderly: estimates of ADL and IADL difficulties (DHHS Publication No. (OPHS) 90–3462). National Medical Expenditure survey Research Findings Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Rockville: Public Health Service; 1990 (as quoted by Alexander, 2007).Google Scholar
  4. 307.
    Lair T, Lefkowitz D. Mental health and functional status of residents of nursing and personal care homes. (DHHS publication No. (PHS) 90–3470). National Medical Expenditure Survey Research Findings, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Rockville: Public Health Service; 1990.Google Scholar
  5. 308.
    Verghese J, LeValley A, Hall CB, Katz MJ, Ambrose AE, Lipton EB. Epidemiology of gait disorders in community –residing older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54(2):255–61.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 309.
    Camiciolli R, Rosano C. Understanding gait in aging: finding the way forward: Part I. Website Edition April/May 2012: The Movement Disorder SocietyMDS. http://www.movementdisorders.org/monthly_edition/2012/04/understanding_gait_in_. Accessed 18 July 2013.
  7. 310.
    Lee D, Lishman R. Vision in movement and balance. New Sci. 1975;9:59–61.Google Scholar
  8. 311.
    Spirduso WW. Physical dimensions of aging. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 1995.Google Scholar
  9. 312.
    Brockelhurst JC, Robertson D, James-Groin P. Clinical correlates of sway in old age-sensory modalities. Age Aging. 1982;11:1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 313.
    Murray MP, Kory RC, Clarkson BH. Walking patterns in healthy old men. J Gerontol. 1969;24(2):169–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 314.
    Winter DA, Patla AE, Frank JS, Walt SE. Biomechanical walking changes in the fit and healthy elders. Phys Ther. 1980;70:740–7.Google Scholar
  12. 315.
    Judge JO, Ounuu S, Davis RB. Effects of age in the biomechanics and physiology of gait. Clin Geriatr Med. 1996;12(4):659–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 316.
    Blanke DJ, Hageman PA. Comparison of gait of young men and elderly men. Phys Ther. 1989;69:2.Google Scholar
  14. 317.
    Hageman PA, Blanke DJ. Comparison of gait of young women and elderly women. Phys Ther. 1986;66:9–11.Google Scholar
  15. 318.
    Hageman PA. Gait characteristics in healthy elderly: a literature review. Section of geriatrics. Am Physiol Therapy Assoc. 1995;18:2–5.Google Scholar
  16. 319.
    Alexander NB. Gait disorders in older adults. Clin Geriatrics. http://www.clinicalgeriatrics.com/article/1231.
  17. 320.
    Koller WC, Wilson RS, Glatt SL, Huckman MS, Fox JR. Senile gait. Correlation with computed tomographic scans. Ann Neurol. 1983;13:343–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 321.
    Hogan DB, Bermann DB, Fox RA, Hubley-Kozey CL, Turnbull G, Wall J. Idiopathic gait disorders in the elderly. Clin Rehab. 1987;1:17–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 322.
    Eible RJ, Hughes L, Higgins C. The syndrome of senile gait. J Neurol. 1992;239:71–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 323.
    Bloem BR, Gussekloo J, Lagaay AM, Remarque EJ, Haan J, Westendorp RG. Idiopathic gait disorders are signs of subclinical disease. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48(9):1098–101 (abstract).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 324.
    Nutt JG, Marsden CD, Thompson PD. Human walking and higher –level gait disorders, particularly in the elderly. Neurology. 1993;43(2):268–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 325.
    Liston R, Mickelboruogh J, Bene J, Tallis R. A new classification of higher level gait disorders in patients with cerebral multi-infarct states. Age Ageing. 2003;32:252–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 2
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 3
  1. 1.Sydney Medical School (Westmead)The University of SydneyNorth RocksAustralia
  2. 2.Norwest Specialist Medical GroupBella VistaAustralia
  3. 3.Blacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalBlacktownAustralia

Personalised recommendations