Advertisement

Oral Issues and Related Disorders in the Elderly

  • Nages Nagaratnam
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
  • Gary Cheuk
Chapter
  • 1.7k Downloads

Abstract

With ageing, structural changes occur in the oral and perioral tissues. With age, there is a decrease in pulp cell density with increase in sentinel thickness. Over the years, it was accepted that dental caries forms through interaction of acid-forming bacteria, carbohydrates and host of other factors relating to the teeth and saliva. Today, it is acknowledged that dental caries is much more complex and is caused by the interaction between tooth structure biofilm, dietary, saliva and genetic factors. Periodontitis is most common in the elderly and is most important cause of tooth loss. Tooth wear is the result of processes such as abrasion, attrition, erosion and demastication. The most common cause of oral cancer is squamous cell cancer.

Keywords

Age-related changes Caries Periodontitis Tooth wear Edentulism Oral cancer 

References

  1. 1.
    Al-Drees AM. Oral and perioral physiological changes with ageing. Pakistan Oral Dental J. 2010;30(1):26–30.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Guiglia R, Musciotto A, Compilato D, Procaccini M, Russo LL, Ciavarella D, et al. Aging and oral health: effects in hard and soft tissues. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16(6):619–30 (abstract).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Klein DR. Oral soft tissue changes in geriatric patients, symposium on considerations for oral health care in the aging patient. Dental Society of the State of New York; 1980. p. 56.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Murray PE, Stanley HR, Matthews JB, Sloan AJ, Smith AJ. Age related odontometric changes of human teeth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002;93(4):474–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
    Chauncey HH, Feldman RS, Weyker AH. Oral aspects of aging. Am J Fam Physician. 1983;28(1):147–52.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dolan TA, Atchison KA. Implications of access, utilization and need for oral health care by the non-institutionalised and institutionalized elderly on the dental delivery system. J Dent Educ. 1993;57(12):876–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Petersen PE, Yamamoto T. Improving the oral health of older people: the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2005;33(2):81–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Page RC. The pathobiology of periodontal diseases may affect systemic diseases: inversion of a paradigm. Ann Periodontol. 1998;3(1):108–20 (abstract).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shay K. Infectious complications of dental and periodontal diseases in the elderly population. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:1215–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Niessen LC, Fedele DJ. Aging successfully: oral health for the prime of life. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2002;23(10 Suppl):4–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tofino PME, Cepeda GLA. Ageing and oral cavity. Pract Odontol. 1989;10(3):33–6.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Miller W. The presence of bacterial plaques on the surface of teeth and their significance. Dent Cosmos. 1902;44:425–46.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    William LJ. A contribution to the study of pathology of enamel. Dent Cosmos. 1897;39:169–96.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fejerskov O, Nyvad B. Is dental caries an infectious disease? Diagnostic and treatment consequences for the practitioner. In: Schon I, editor. Norde Dentistry 2003 Year book. Copenhagen: Quintessence Publishing; 2003. p. 41–151.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zero T, Fontana M, Martinez-Mier EA, Ferriera-Zandona A, Ando M, Gomzalez-Cabezas C, et al. The biology, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dental caries. J Am Dent Assoc. 2009;140 suppl 1:25S–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fejerskov O. Changing paradigms in concepts on dental caries: consequences for oral health care. Caries Res. 2004;35:183–91.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Marsh PD. Are dental diseases examples of ecological catastrophes? Microbiology. 2003;149(Pt 2):279–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Beltran-Aquilar ED, Barker LR, Canto MT, Dye B, Gooch BF, Griffin SO, et al. Surveillance for dental caries, dental sealants, tooth retention, edentulism and enamel fluorosis. United States 1988–1994 and 1999-2—2. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2005;54(3):1–43.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ellen RP. Considerations for physicians caring for the older adults with periodontal disease. Clin Geriatr Med. 1992;8(3):599–616 (abstract).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jeffcoat MK. Prevention of periodontal diseases in adults: strategies for the future. Prev Med. 1994;23(5):704–8 (abstract).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kinane DF, Marshall GJ. Periodontal manifestations of systemic disease. Aust Dent J. 2001;46(1):2–12 (abstract).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Smith BG, Robb ND. The prevalence of tooth wear in 1007 dental patients. Oral Rehab. 1993;23(4):232–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    De Baat C, van Nieuw Amerongen A. Tooth wear. Classification and terminology. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 1997;104(4):138–41 (abstract).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Imfeld T. Dental erosion. Definition and classification and links. Eur J Oral Sci. 1996;104(2 (Pt 2)):151–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Abrahamsen TC. The worn dentition-pathognomonic patterns of abrasion and erosion. Int Dent J. 2005;55(4 Suppl 1):268–76 (abstract).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moffitt AR. Tooth wear and erosion Update on patient care. Inside Densistry. http://www.dental-professional.com/Nrews_Articles.aspx?NewsID=News044.
  28. 28.
    Smith BG, Bartlett DW, Robb ND. The prevalence etiology and management of tooth wear in the United Kingdom. J Prosthet Dent. 1997;78(1):367–72 (abstract).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bartlett D. A new look at erosive tooth wear in elderly people. J Am Den Ass. 2007;135(Supp (7)):21S–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bartlett DW, Shah PA. A critical review of non-caries cervical (wear) lesions and the role of abfract erosion and abrasion. J Dent Res. 2006;8594:306–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    National Institute of Dentition and Craniofacial Research (NICDR) Update; 2013.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    National Institute of Dentition and Craniofacial Research (NICDR) Update 20 Dec 2008.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
    Al-Shamnari KF, Al-Kabbaz AK, Al-Ansari JM, Neiva R, Wang HL. Risk indications for tooth loss due to periodontal disease. J Periodontol. 2005;76:1910–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nages Nagaratnam
    • 1
  • Kujan Nagaratnam
    • 2
  • Gary Cheuk
    • 3
  1. 1.Sydney Medical School (Westmead)The University of SydneyNorth RocksAustralia
  2. 2.Norwest Specialist Medical GroupBella VistaAustralia
  3. 3.Blacktown-Mt Druitt HospitalBlacktownAustralia

Personalised recommendations