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Towards Behavioral Objects: A Twofold Approach for a System of Notation to Design and Implement Behaviors in Non-anthropomorphic Robotic Artifacts

Part of the Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics book series (STAR,volume 111)

Abstract

Among robots, non-anthropomorphic robotic artifacts are in an interesting position: the fact that they do not resemble living beings, yet impart a sense of agency through the way they move, motivates to consider motion as a source of expressivity in itself, independently of any morphological cues. This problematic is considered in parallel to the question of movement notation and the different levels of abstraction that one may consider when reflecting on movement and its relation to a spatial, temporal and social context. This is through a twofold perspective, drawing on both dance notation and cognitive psychology, that we consider the question of movement notation, and its relation to expressive gestures and psychological attributes. To progress in the direction of a system of notation that could integrate the qualitative, relational, and behavioral aspects of movement, we propose different typologies and a model of constraints to analyze, conceive and implement behaviors in robotic artifacts.

Keywords

  • Human Observer
  • Psychological Attribute
  • Psychological Trait
  • Anticipatory Postural Adjustment
  • Expressive Movement

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This publication is part of a research program (“The Behavior of Things”) that is supported, through the Labex Arts-H2H, by Investissements d’Avenir (ANR-10-LABX-80-01) of The French National Research Agency (ANR).

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Notes

  1. 1.

    We call “behavioral objects” the moving artifacts that a human observer perceives as acting in a meaningful way. Those artifacts need not necessarily be robotic, although their “behavioral” potential is of course reinforced by their ability to react to certain events. Cf. [4].

  2. 2.

    For example: “The Misbehavior of Animated Objects” Workshop, 8th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interaction (TEI 2014). February 2014, Munich. URL, July 9, 2014: http://www.tei-conf.org/14/studios.php#s9.

  3. 3.

    The MisB Toolkit developed by the EnsadLab/Reflective Interaction team, under the direction of Samuel Bianchini, by Didier Bouchon, Colin Bouvry, Cécile Bucher, Martin Gautron, Benoît Verjat, and Alexandre Saunier, in the context of the project The Behavior of Things, with the support of Labex Arts-H2H and the Bettencourt Schueller Foundation. For more information, URL, July 9, 2014: http://diip.ensadlab.fr/fr/projets/article/the-misb-kit.

  4. 4.

    See for instance project LOL (Laban On Lisp) by Fred Voisin, from Myriam Gourfink’s research in choreography. Cf.: http://www.fredvoisin.com/spip.php?article164 et Frédéric Voisin, LOL: Un environnement expérimental de composition chorégraphique, in Ec/cart, vol. 2, Eric Sadin ed., Dif’Pop, Paris, 2000.

  5. 5.

    The literature on APA is vast, but among the first to have had the intuition and then to have conducted experimental research were: N.A. Bernstein, The coordination and regulation of movements, Oxford, Pergamon, 1967; S.M. Bouisset, M. Zattara, “A sequence of postural movements precedes voluntary movement”, Neuroscience Letter, 1981, n. 22 pp. 263–270.

  6. 6.

    The experiment carried out in the framework of the TechLab workshop of the Dance Monaco Forum (by a team that included, among others, H. Godard, A. Menicacci, E. Quinz, the research team in IRCAM directed by F. Bevilacqua, and the research scientist in behavioral neuroscience I. Viaud-Delmon, CNRS) led to an interesting discovery. By using optical fiber flexion sensors to measure the lateralized movements of two dancers, in particular making repeated arm movements to the right and left, it was possible to determine that the movements involved a whole series of adjustments that were not bilaterally symmetrical as we might have imagined. That indicates that the geometric kinesphere is only a theoretical premise and that when it is experienced through the contingency of a gesture it is dented and asymmetrical. The perceived space is not homogeneous and it contains variable directions and intensities. Cf. A. Menicacci, E. Quinz, “Etendre la perception? Biofeedback et transfert intermodaux en danse”, in “Scientifiquement danse”, Nouvelles de danse 53, Brussels, 2005, pp. 76–96.

  7. 7.

    See the research projects led by Antonio Camurri (Università di Genova, Italy). Starting from the mapping of «emotional indexes» embodied in the body movement, Camurri has developped since 1999 the software EyesWeb and EyesWeb XMI Gesture and Social Processing Software Library. See Camurri [7, 8], et A. Camurri, B. Mazzarino, G. Volpe (2004) Analysis of Expressive Gesture: The EyesWeb Expressive Gesture Processing Library, in A. Camurri, G. Volpe (eds.), Gesture-based Communication in Human-Computer Interaction, LNAI 2915, pp. 460–467, Springer Verlag.

  8. 8.

    The “gestosphere” or “sphere of the gesture” is proposed by Hubert Godard as the ensemble of connections (physical, perceptive, affective, and symbolic) that relate people to their environment. In contrast to Laban, Godard insists on the way the “dynamosphere” is psychologically and symbolically experienced by a person. We could therefore advance that the Godardian gestosphere is based on the dynamosphere, but goes beyond it from the viewpoint of meaning, since it immediately takes into account the psychological experience of the person. Cf. L. Louppe, Poétique de la danse contemporaine, Brussels, Contredanse, 1997, pp. 68–70.

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Bianchini, S., Levillain, F., Menicacci, A., Quinz, E., Zibetti, E. (2016). Towards Behavioral Objects: A Twofold Approach for a System of Notation to Design and Implement Behaviors in Non-anthropomorphic Robotic Artifacts. In: Laumond, JP., Abe, N. (eds) Dance Notations and Robot Motion. Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics, vol 111. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-25739-6_1

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