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Vision of Cities: From the Green City to the Smart City

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Abstract

Cities are complex, adaptive, social–ecological systems (SES) “characterized by a particular human settlement pattern that associates with its functional or administrative region, a critical mass and density of people, man-made structures and activities” (UNEP 2011).

Keywords

  • Post carbon city
  • Smart
  • Eco city
  • Social-ecological systems
  • City
  • Sustainable urban development

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Levin and Harvey (1999), Berkes et al. (2003), Gunderson and Holling (2001), Norberg and Cumming (2008), Evans (2008).

  2. 2.

    Rapaport (2014).

  3. 3.

    Register: Ecocity Berkeley: Building Cities for a Healthy Future (1987).

  4. 4.

    Rapaport (2014), Jabareen (2006).

  5. 5.

    James, Paul; with Magee, Liam; Scerri, Andy; Steger, Manfred B (2015). Urban Sustainability in Theory and Practice: Circles of Sustainability. London: Routledge.

  6. 6.

    http://vancouver.ca/green-vancouver.aspx.

  7. 7.

    http://vancouver.ca/files/cov/Greenest-city-action-plan.pdf.

  8. 8.

    http://vancouver.ca/green-vancouver.aspx.

  9. 9.

    http://sfenvironment.org/zero-waste/overview/zero-waste-by-2020.

  10. 10.

    http://sfenvironment.org/news?topic=details&ni=749.

  11. 11.

    http://sfenvironment.org/news?topic=details&ni=749.

  12. 12.

    http://www.cnet.com/news/san-francisco-introduces-free-solar-powered-electric-vehicle-charging/.

  13. 13.

    http://sfenvironment.org/news?topic=details&ni=749.

  14. 14.

    http://www.climateactionprogramme.org/climate-leader-papers/urban_ecology_in_oslo.

  15. 15.

    http://www.iclei-europe.org/fileadmin/templates/iclei-europe/files/content/Membership/MUTS/Oslo/Oslo_brochure.PDF.

  16. 16.

    http://www.ecomagination.com/top-five-most-sustainable-cities-in-the-world.

  17. 17.

    Ogorkiewicz and Falconer (2013).

  18. 18.

    Evans (2008), p.3; based on Adger (2006), Neil Adger, Arnell, and Tompkins (2005).

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Correspondence to Ingrid Kaltenegger .

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Kaltenegger, I., Santiago Fink, H. (2016). Vision of Cities: From the Green City to the Smart City. In: Integration of Nature and Technology for Smart Cities. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-25715-0_18

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-25715-0_18

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