Vision of Cities: From the Green City to the Smart City

  • Ingrid KalteneggerEmail author
  • Helen Santiago Fink


Cities are complex, adaptive, social–ecological systems (SES) “characterized by a particular human settlement pattern that associates with its functional or administrative region, a critical mass and density of people, man-made structures and activities” (UNEP 2011).


Post carbon city Smart Eco city Social-ecological systems City Sustainable urban development 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbHGrazAustria
  2. 2.Universität für Bodenkultur Wien, University of Natural Resources and Life SciencesViennaAustria

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